UPDATE: Researching Ghanaian Law
By Victor Essien
Victor Essien holds LL.B. (Hons), LL.M. (Ghana), LL.M. (Int’l), and J.S.D. (NYU) degrees. He is a Rector and Professor of Law at Nyansapo College, East Legon, Accra, Ghana and he was an International Law Librarian and Professor of Law at Fordham Law School, where he taught International Oil and Gas Law, International Investment Law, Multinational Corporations Law International Humanitarian Law Research and International and Foreign Legal Research. He was formerly a Law Lecturer (on National Service) at the University of Ghana, Legon and the University of Jos, Nigeria. He was also a Consultant to the UNCTC in New York and a Legal Assistant to the Iran-US Claims Tribunal at The Hague, the Netherlands. He was admitted to the Ghana Bar in 1977. He is currently a Member of the Bars of Ghana, New York State, United States District Court, Southern and Eastern Districts of New York and The United States Court of Appeals, Second and Third Circuits.
Published November/December 2020
(Previously updated in April 2008, January 2012, and September 2016)
Table of Contents
- 1. Introduction and Historical Note
- 2. Sources of Law in Ghana
- 3. The Constitution
- 4. Legislation and Legislative History
- 5. Official Compilations and Session Laws of Ghana
- 6. Unofficial Compilations of Laws
- 7. Multi-Jurisdictional Databases with Relevant Ghana Legislation
- 8. Subsidiary or Subordinate Legislation
- 9. Official Sources of Subsidiary Legislation
- 10. Unofficial Sources of Subsidiary Legislation
- 11. Case Law
- 12. Index to Case law
- 13. Official Law Reports
- 14. Unofficial Law Reports
- 15. Common Law in Ghana
- 16. Customary Law
- 17. Citation
- 18. Legal Periodicals
- 19. Selected Bibliography of Ghanaian Secondary Materials
- 19.1. General
- 19.2. Constitutional and Administrative Law
- 19.3. Civil Obligations, Commercial and Company Law
- 19.4. Criminal Law and Procedure
- 19.5. Evidence
- 19.6. Family Law, Chieftaincy, Equity and Succession
- 19.7. Labor Law
- 19.8. Land Law
- 19.9. Legal Profession
- 19.10. Media Law
- 19.11. Practice and Procedure
- 20. Multi-Jurisdictional Sets and Databases with Significant Ghana Law Content
- 21. Legal Education and the Legal Profession
- 22. Treaties
- 23. Newspapers
1. Introduction and Historical Note
Ghana attained independence from colonial British rule on March 6, 1957. On July 1, 1960, it became a republic, the first of four civilian republics that were interspersed with periods of military rule. On January 7, 1993, the Fourth Republic was inaugurated, complete with a new Constitution. The law and legal system in Ghana is heavily marked by its history.
The Portuguese built the first permanent trading post, the Elmina Castle, in 1482. The port town had been christened “El mina”, the mine, homage to the gold riches in those parts. In 1642, the Portuguese lost Elmina to the Dutch. The Portuguese left the Gold Coast permanently. The next 150 years were defined by conflict and diplomatic maneuvers, as the various European powers, including the British, struggled to maintain or establish a position of dominance in the profitable trade along the Gold Coast. Both the Dutch and the British formed companies to advance their African ventures and to protect their coastal establishments. The British gained possession of all Dutch coastal forts by the last quarter of the nineteenth century and became the dominant European power on the Gold Coast by 1872.
The British involvement in the Gold Coast was initially through their merchants and traders. It was not until 1844 that Captain Hill, as Governor, signed a treaty with the coastal Fanti chiefs to keep the trade routes open and to protect them from Ashanti incursion. This treaty, the Bond of 1844, also required the chiefs to submit serious crimes such as murder and robberies to British jurisdiction. This laid the legal foundation for subsequent colonization of the coastal area. British control was gradually extended over the other small African states or communities on the coast. In time, this system of irregular jurisdiction was formalized with the establishment of a Supreme Court on the Gold Coast, in 1853, as part of the West African Settlements.
Ten years earlier, the British Settlements Act of 1843, empowered the British Crown to “establish such laws, institutions and ordinances, and to constitute such courts and offices as may be necessary for the peace, order and good government” of the territories concerned. (Section 1 of the British Settlements Act, 1843). In 1876, the Gold Coast Supreme Court Ordinance (No. 4 of 1876) was passed. Section 14 of the said Ordinance stipulated that:
“The Common law, the doctrines of equity, and the statutes of general application which were in force in England at the date when the colony obtained a local legislature, that is to say, on the 24th day of July, 1874, shall be in force within the jurisdiction of the Court.”
Section 19 of this Act also provided for the application of customary law. This was in conformity with the emerging British colonial policy of indirect rule. Section 19 reads, in part, as follows:
“Nothing in this Ordinance shall deprive the Supreme Court of the right to observe and enforce the observance, or shall deprive any person of the benefit of any law or custom existing in the said colony and territories subject to its jurisdiction, such law or custom not being repugnant to natural justice, equity and good conscience, nor incompatible either directly or by necessary implication with any enactment of the Colonial legislature.”
The legal pluralism that was recognized under the 1876 Supreme Court Ordinance persists today. It is moderated by elaborate choice of law rules. The current choice of law rules are stated in Section 54 of the Courts Act 1993 (No. 459 of 1993), as amended by the Court (Amendment) Act, 2002 (No. 646 of 2002).
2. Sources of Law in Ghana
Article 11 of the 1992 Ghana Constitution states that the laws of Ghana shall comprise:
- The Constitution
- Enactments made by or under the authority of the Parliament established by the Constitution [or legislation]
- Any Orders, Rules and Regulations made by any person or authority under a power conferred by this Constitution [or subsidiary or subordinate legislation]
- The existing law or the written and unwritten laws of Ghana that existed immediately before the coming into force of the 1992 Constitution
- The common law [or the English common law, English doctrines of equity, and the rules of customary law]
3. The Constitution
Since the first republican Constitution in 1960, Ghana has had three other Constitutions. These are the 1969, 1979 and 1992 Constitutions. The earlier constitutions can be located in the historic constitutions volume of Constitutions of Countries of the World. Blaustein, Albert P. and Gilbert H. Flanz, eds. New York, Oceana, 1971. The current 1992 Constitution is available in the “modern constitutions” volumes of Constitutions of the Countries of the World. Oceana’s Constitutions of the Countries of the World is also available online through paid subscription.
The current 1992 Constitution is available free of charge online (see also WipoLex). In January 2010, the Government of Ghana established a Constitutional Review Commission to conduct a consultative review of the 1992 Constitution. The Constitution Review Commission submitted its Report on December 20, 2011. In June 2012, the Government published a White Paper on the Report of the Constitution Review Commission Presented to the President outlining its position on the Report of the Constitutional Review Commission. Among the Government’s positions was the establishment of a Constitutional Implementation Committee. On October 2, 2012, the Attorney-General of Ghana, inaugurated a five-member Constitutional Implementation Committee charged with the responsibility of preparing the people for a referendum on the entrenched provisions of the Constitution as well as facilitating the passage of bills to amend the non-entrenched provisions of the Constitution. They would undertake the latter by developing legislative proposals for legislative changes recommended by the Constitutional Review Commission. The legality of the Constitutional Review Commission and the activities of the Constitutional Implementation Committee were tested in a lawsuit. However, in October 2015, the Supreme Court of Ghana, by a 5-2 majority, dismissed the suit, Asare v. Attorney General, as meritless.
4. Legislation and Legislative History
Ghana is a unitary state with a unicameral legislature. The 1992 Constitution provides for one Parliament, which exercises all primary legislative functions. There is a Council of State, which is an advisory body to the President. The President may refer bills or even laws to the Council of State for its comments. Parliament, however, is only required to consider or reconsider such comments and is not bound by them. According to Article 106(11) of the 1992 Constitution, no bill becomes law unless it has been published in the official gazette. The Ghana Gazette is thus an obvious source for locating legislation in Ghana.
Ghana presently has sixteen regions. Following the December 27, 2018 referendum, the number of administrative regions in Ghana was increased from ten to sixteen. All regions are under the central government and no regional institution possesses any legislative authority.
Legislation passed by the current Parliament, as well as that passed by Parliaments under the prior Constitutions, is labeled as “Acts.” Legislation passed under the military regimes was labeled as “Decrees” except for that under the regime of the Provisional National Defense Council (P.N.D.C.), which was referred to as “Laws”, e.g. the Intestate Succession Law, 1985, (P.N.D.C. Law No.111 of 1985). Colonial legislation was styled Ordinances.
There is no jurisprudential basis for the differences in terminology. All laws continue to apply to the extent that they are not expressly repealed or abrogated. All “Acts” are numbered sequentially with no break in the run, except the Acts of the Constituent Assembly in 1960, which enacted the First Republican Constitution and other legislation to facilitate Ghana’s transition to republican status. The “Decrees” and “Laws,” although numbered sequentially, enjoy breaks in the run with each new regime starting its own run.
Under Article 106(1) of the 1992 Constitution, Parliament’s legislative power is exercised by passing bills that are assented to by the President. A bill may be introduced by a Minister of State or by a private Member of Parliament. Whether it is a Government bill or a private Member’s bill, no bill shall be introduced in Parliament unless it is accompanied by an explanatory memorandum setting out in detail the policy and principles of the bill, the defects of the existing law, the remedies proposed and the necessity for the introduction of the bill. In addition, the bill should be published in the Ghana Gazette at least fourteen days before the date of its introduction. The Gazette is, therefore, a source for locating bills or proposed legislation in Ghana.
In general, a bill must go through certain stages before becoming law. Articles 106 (4) through (6) of the Constitution mandate that a bill must go through a first reading, after which it is referred to a committee of Parliament. This committee shall issue its report to the full house after considering representations from interested parties and the general public. The Standing Orders of the present Parliament require each bill to be subjected to a second and a third reading as well as a consideration stage. The second reading occurs after a bill has been referred to the appropriate parliamentary committee. The report of the committee, the bill and its explanatory memorandum shall be subjected to a full debate by the full house. It is at this stage that amendments may be entertained. If there are more than twenty proposed amendments to any bill at this stage, the bill has to undergo the winnowing process before the appropriate parliamentary committee. All bills move from then to the consideration stage where it is reviewed clause by clause. The third reading occurs after a bill has passed through the consideration stage. It is signified by a formal Motion and is not accompanied by a debate. After these parliamentary steps have been exhausted, the bill is presented to the President for his/her assent or otherwise.
The President has seven days after the presentation to inform the Speaker of Parliament that he/she assents or refuses to assent to the bill. Where the President refuses to assent to a bill, he/she shall, within fourteen days of such refusal, state in a memorandum to the Speaker his/her reasons for that position and any recommendations for amendments, where applicable. Alternatively, he/she shall inform the Speaker that he/she has referred the legislation to the Council of State for consideration and comment under Article 90 of the Constitution. Parliament shall reconsider this bill in the light of the comments by the President or the Council of State. Such a bill will need the favor of support from two-thirds of all members of Parliament to mandate a Presidential assent and become law.
The debates of the committee of Parliament as well as those of the full house are recorded verbatim by the Hansard department of the Office of the Clerk of Parliament. These recordings and other documents of Parliament, including bills are published as Official Report or the Hansard of the Parliament of Ghana. It constitutes a rich source for the legislative history of the laws of Ghana. However, in Ghana, Article 19(1) of the Interpretation Act, 1960(C.A.4) as amended by the Interpretation (Amendment) Act, 1961(Act 92), the Interpretation (Amendment) (No.2) Act, 1962 (Act 145) and the Interpretation Act (Amendment) Law, 1982 (PNDCL 12), has codified the common law position against the use of parliamentary debates as opposed to reports, memoranda, even text books, as aids to statutory construction.
5. Official Compilations and Session Laws of Ghana
During the colonial regime, the government, from time to time, would publish consolidated statutes in force as of a certain date. In 1936, on the authority of the Revised Edition of the Laws (Gold Coast) Ordinance, 1936, a Commissioner was appointed to prepare a revised edition of the laws of the Gold Coast, covering the period from 1852 to 1936. It was published in four volumes. Another revised edition was published in 1954 that extended the accumulation to 1951. That had nine volumes. Regrettably, that practice was not followed after independence except for the singular effort in 1970 with the publication of the Consolidated Acts of Ghana. In 1974, an Index to the Statutes in Force was also published. Datacenta’s electronic Consolidated Statutes menu is not yet complete.
The result is that it is often difficult even for lawyers to tell whether a statute or a particular section of a statute is in force. The “Review of Ghana Law” publishes a section, titled “Statutory Intelligence,” where it notes those statutes and sections of existing statutes that have been repealed or amended. It does the same for subsidiary legislation. In 1997, Sozo Law Consult started the publication of a digest of laws passed each year, noting the new laws, amended laws and revoked laws. It is presently current up to 2002. This publication is called “Legislative Watch” (Accra: Sozo Law Consult, 1997-2002).
Successive Governments in Ghana have been concerned about the difficulty of tracking and locating the laws of Ghana. Until recently, the response had been piece-meal, by passing legislation to identify laws that should be repealed or revoked. The relevant legislation are the Statute Law Revisions Act, 1963 (Act 215), the Statute Law Revisions Act, 1969 (NLCD 355), the Statute Law Revisions Act, 1971 (Act 368), the Statute Law Revisions Act, 1973 (NRCD184), the Statute Law Revisions Act, 1973 (NRCD 228), the Statute Law Revisions Act, 1992 (PNDCL 295), the Statute Law Revisions Act, 1993 (PNDCL 323), 1996 (Act 516), the Statute Law Revisions Act, 1997 (Act 543).
In 1998, Government assumed a legislative obligation under the Laws of Ghana (Revised Edition) Act, 1998 (Act 562), to revise, compile and publish a consolidated version of the laws of Ghana as of January 1, 1999. It took nine years and two legislative amendments for Government to make good on this promise. Following the Laws of Ghana (Revised Edition) (Amendment) Act, 2006 (Act 711) and the Laws of Ghana (Revised Edition) (Amendment) Act, 2007 (Act 729), the Government of Ghana has now published the Revised Laws of Ghana, 2004, presently comprising seven volumes. It is in a loose-leaf format, allowing for annual updates by means of service issues. It includes a chronological index of statutes from 1852 to 2004 showing the action taken on each law.
The following official sources exist for locating legislation in Ghana. Primarily they are only print sources:
- Laws of the Gold Coast, containing the Ordinances of the Gold Coast, the Gold Coast Colony, Ashanti, the Northern Territories, and Togoland under British Mandate, and Subsidiary Legislation there under enacted on or before September 1, 1936. 4 vols. (covering the period from 1852- 1936). Accra: Government Printer: 1937
- Annual Volumes of the Laws of the Gold Coast Containing all Legislation enacted during the years 1939-1958. Accra: Government Printer, 1939-
- Laws of the Gold Coast, Containing the Ordinances of the Gold Coast, the Gold Coast Colony, Ashanti, the Northern Territories, and Togoland under United Kingdom Trusteeship, enacted on or before the 31st day of December 1951, London: C.F. Roworth, 1954-1956. 9 vols.
- Laws of the Gold Coast: 1952-1954 Supplement to the Revised Edition of the Ordinances, Containing the Ordinances enacted between the 1st day of 1952 and the 31st day of December 1954. Together with the Income Tax Ordinance, 1943 and Chronological Tables of the Ordinances of the Gold Coast. Accra: Government Printer, 1955. 2 vols.
- Annual Volumes of the Laws of Ghana enacted during the year 1957-1959/1960. Accra: Government Printer, 1957-
- Consolidated Acts of Ghana. Accra: State Publishing Corp, 1960-1970
- Acts of Ghana (First Republic). No1-318, 1960-1966. Accra: Government Printer, 1960-1966.
- National Liberation Council Decrees. No. 1-406, 1966-1969. Accra: State Publishing Corp. 1966-1969 (also referred to as vols 6-8 of the Acts of Ghana)
- Acts of Ghana (Second Republic). No 319-392, 1970-1971. Accra: State Publishing Corporation, 1970-1971.
- Laws and Decrees of the National Redemption Council. No. 1-36, 1972. Accra: Ghana Publishing Corp, 1972.
- Acts of the Supreme Military Council. No 1-372, 1975-1979. Accra: Ghana Publishing Corp, 1975-1979.
- Laws and Decrees of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, No.1- . Accra: Ghana Publishing Corp., 1979.
- Acts of the Parliament of the Republic of Ghana (Third Republic) No. 393- , 1979-1981. Accra; Ghana Publishing Corp 1979-1981.
- Laws of the Provisional National Defence Council, No. 1- , 1982-1992, Accra: Information Services Department, 1982-1992.
- Laws of Ghana (Revised Edition), 2004. Accra: Ghana Statute Law Revision Commission, 2007.
6. Unofficial Compilations of Laws
For some time Datacenta was the only noteworthy unofficial publisher of Ghanaian legislation. Its online resources offered a fairly comprehensive access to Ghanaian legal information, including legislation. It put out Ghanaian legislation in the following formats:
- Acts of the Fourth Republic
- Business and Financial Laws
- Consolidated Statutes of Ghana
Datacenta appears to have closed shop on this endeavor. At the moment, Lexis-Nexis South Africa publishes the “Laws of Ghana (Revised Edition), 2004” and its annual updates, both in loose-leaf and electronic formats.
7. Multi-Jurisdictional Databases with Relevant Ghana Legislation
The following multi-jurisdictional databases offer access to relevant Ghanaian legislation:
- Constitutions of the Countries of the World Online. London: Oxford University Press, 1971. (Subscription based)
- Doing Business Law Library (World Bank)
- Ecolex. A Gateway to Environmental Law (UNEP)
- Faolex (Database of national laws and regulations on food, agriculture and renewable natural resources)
- Natlex. Database of national labor, social security and related human rights legislation. (ILO)
- WIPO Lex - Ghana (Database of national intellectual property legislation)
- World Legal Information Institute
8. Subsidiary or Subordinate Legislation
The 1992 Constitution classifies subsidiary legislation as part of the laws of Ghana. Article 11(7) of the Constitution provides further that any Order, Rule or Regulation made by a person or authority under a power conferred by the Constitution or any other law, shall be laid before Parliament, published in the Gazette and comes into force after twenty-one sitting days of Parliament, unless two-thirds or more members of Parliament vote to annul it.
The colonial subsidiary legislation was usually published as part of, or as a special supplement to, the annual or consolidated compilations of laws after they had appeared in the official gazettes. Subsidiary legislation in Ghana includes legislative instruments, executive instruments, constitutional instruments and regulatory notices of government ministries, government departments and agencies.
According to the Statutory Instruments Act, 1959 (Act 52), as amended by the Official Publications Act, 1959(Act 85), the Interpretation Act, 1960 (C.A. 4), and the Statutory Instruments (Amendment) Act, 1997 (Act 539), a statutory instrument is an instrument made, whether directly or indirectly, under a power conferred by an enactment. Article 295 of the 1992 Constitution clarifies further that an enactment could be an Act of Parliament, a Decree, a Law or a constitutional instrument, or a statutory instrument or any provision thereof. Section 4 of the Statutory Instrument Act, 1959, as amended, defines a legislative instrument as a statutory instrument declared by the Attorney-General to be legislative in character. As a general rule, an instrument is legislative in character if it determines or alters the law, rather than applying it in a particular case, and has direct or indirect effect of affecting privilege or interest, imposing an obligation, creating a right, or varying or removing an obligation or right. Section 5 of the Statutory Instruments Act, 1959, as amended, states that statutory instruments other than legislative instruments or instruments of a judicial character shall be known as executive instruments.
Article 295 of the 1992 Constitution defines constitutional instruments as instruments made under a power conferred by the Constitution.
9. Official Sources of Subsidiary Legislation
The official sources for subsidiary legislation in Ghana are:
- Gold Coast Government Gazette. Accra: Government Printer, 1872 – 1957.
- Ghana Gazette. Accra: Government Printing Office, 1957-. (Succeeded the Gold Coast Gazette).
- Separate subseries to the gazette have been issued (1960-1964) with variant titles including: Ghana Commercial and Industrial Bulletin (1960- ), Ghana Land and Concessions Bulletin (1960- ), Ghana Local Government Bulleting (1960- ).
- Subsidiary Legislation: Proclamations, Orders, Rules, Regulations and other Legal Notifications. Government Printing Department, 1953-1956.
- Ghana. Subsidiary Legislation: Proclamations, Orders, Rules, Regulations and other Legal Notifications published during the year 1957- .
- Laws of Ghana in force (Revised Edition), 2004. Accra: Ghana Statute Law Revision Commission, 2007.
10. Unofficial Sources of Subsidiary Legislation
The LexisNexis South Africa platform offers the best access to subsidiary legislation in Ghana. It offers them as follows:
- Constitutional Instruments
- Executive Instruments
- Legislative Instruments
- Regulatory Notices
11. Case Law
In Ghana, a common law jurisdiction, case law and judicial precedent play an important role in the law and its development. Article 125(3) of the 1992 Constitution states that the judicial power of Ghana shall be vested in the Judiciary. Article 127 of the Constitution mandates the independence of the Judiciary. Article 129 of the Constitution pronounces that the Supreme Court shall be the final court of appeal. The Supreme Court, while treating its previous decisions as normally binding, may depart from them if it appears right to do so.
In addition to the Supreme Court, the Constitution provides for a Court of Appeal and a High Court, in descending hierarchical order. The Court of Appeals has no original jurisdiction. It serves as the appellate body for the High Court and the Circuit Court. Article 139(4) of the 1992 Constitution empowers the Chief Justice to create divisions of the High Court. A Commercial Court was thus created in March 2005. In October 2008, four additional divisions were added, namely, the Lands Division, the Economic Crimes (Financial) Division, the Human Rights Division and the Industrial (Labour) Division. Presently, there is also a division of the High Court christened the Divorce and Matrimonial Court and another styled the General Jurisdiction Court. When the Chief Justice first created a Fast Track Court as a high-tech division of the High Court aimed at dealing expeditiously with selected cases, its constitutionality was tested in the Supreme Court (Tsatsu Tsikata v. Attorney-General [Civil Motion No. 11/2002] June 26, 2002.). The Supreme Court, by a 6 to 5 vote, adjudged the Fast Track Courts as constitutional. It appears, though, that in practice, they are becoming as slow as the traditional courts.
The Constitution also allows for the creation of Regional Tribunals, whose membership may include non-lawyers. Regional Tribunals have the status of the High Court and are duly constituted by a Chairman and no less than two other members. They have the jurisdiction to try offences against the State and the Public Interest as Parliament may prescribe by law. Presently, the Regional Tribunals operate only in the Greater Accra and Northern Regions.
In addition to the Superior Courts described above, there are Lower courts comprising Circuit Courts, District Courts and the judicial committees of the National House of Chiefs, the Regional Houses of Chiefs and the Traditional Councils. The Circuit Court has both civil and criminal jurisdiction. The civil jurisdiction includes matters arising under contract, torts or the recovery of all liquidated claims not exceeding GHc 100,000.00, jurisdiction in all landlord and tenant cases, and cases relating to ownership, possession, occupation and title to land. The Circuit Court also has jurisdiction in applications for probate and letters of administration where the value of the estate does not exceed GHc 50,000.00 and jurisdiction in matters involving child custody. The Circuit Court has original jurisdiction in all criminal matters other than treason and offences punishable by death. Appeals from the Circuit Courts in civil matters go directly to the Court of Appeals while appeals in criminal matters are lodged at the High Court.
In March 2009, a Domestic Violence Court was been created under the Domestic Violence Act, 2007 (Act 732) to facilitate the speedy resolution of domestic violence cases. This Court is a division of the Circuit Court.
Two special utility weekend (Saturday) courts were also established in Accra on March 1, 2014, to try utility cases involving the Electricity Company of Ghana Ltd. One of these utility courts has the jurisdiction of a Circuit Court while the other has the jurisdiction of a District Court. This brings to four the number of weekend courts in Accra. The earlier courts are the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) Court and the Cable Theft Court.
The District Courts remain the lowest in the judicial hierarchy of the modern, as opposed to the traditional, court system. There is, at least, one in each administrative district in the country. The District Court exercises both civil and criminal jurisdiction. Its civil jurisdiction includes all personal actions arising under contract or tort for recovery of any liquidated sum not exceeding GHc20, 000.00. Its criminal jurisdiction involves summary trial of offences punishable by a fine not exceeding 500 penalty units or a term of imprisonment not exceeding 2 years or both. A penalty unit is an amount of money used to compute pecuniary penalties for many breaches of statute law. As of April 2019, one penalty unit in Ghana was equivalent to GHc12. Three specialized courts have been created at the district court level, namely the Juvenile Court, the Family Tribunal and Motor Courts. The Juvenile Court shall be composed of the District Magistrate and two other persons, one of whom shall be a Social Welfare Officer. The Court has power to hear and determine any criminal matter that involves a person under the age of eighteen years. The District Court serves as a family tribunal to hear and determine causes and actions that arise under the Children’s Act, 1988 (Act 560). Its main jurisdiction is in matters concerning parentage, custody, visitation and child maintenance. The traditional court system, namely the judicial committees of the National House of Chiefs, the Regional Houses of Chiefs and the Traditional Council have jurisdiction only in respect to causes or matters affecting chieftaincy.
The decisions of the Lower Courts are not published. The Council for Law Reporting, the official reporter of case law in Ghana, is legislatively required to publish only decisions of the Superior Courts. On the whole, the system of law reporting leaves a lot to be desired. The official reporters are often tardy and there was a period when cases were merely reported in digest form and not in full text. Datacenta’s electronic resource, presently marketed through Lexis-Nexis South Africa, is also tardy. The present run ends in 2005. Since 1996, another unofficial reporter has appeared exclusively for Supreme Court decisions. It is a print resource. This is the Supreme Court of Ghana Law Reports. It appears to be more up to date, currently available up to 2014.
12. Index to Case law
There is no comprehensive index to Ghanaian case law. Each volume of the Ghana Law Reports has a subject-matter index, an index of cases cited and judicially noticed as well as statutes and subsidiary legislation judicially noticed. The Supreme Court of Ghana Law Reports follows this example. The editors of the Ghana Law Reports have published, from time to time, cumulative indexes. Presently, there are cumulative indexes covering 1959-1966 and 1971-1976.
13. Official Law Reports
The following reporters are available for both modern and colonial cases:
- Current Cases. Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1968-
- Ghana Law Reports. Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1959- (also available online through Lexis-Nexis South Africa by paid subscription).
- Ghana Law Reports Digest. Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1980-
- Judgments of the Full Courts, Held at Accra and Cape Coast, September 1920 and March-April 1921. Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1980
- Judgments of the Full Courts Held at Accra and Secondee: With the Divisional Court Judgments Appealed From March and April 1922. Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1985
- Law Reports. A Selection from the Cases Decided in the Full Courts of the Gold Coast Colony, of the Colony of Lagos, and of the Colony of Southern Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria: Federal Government Printer, 1929-1951. 21 vols (also referred to as Nigeria Law Reports).
- Selected Judgments of the Divisional Courts of the Gold Coast Colony, 29th June 1921 to 31st December 1925. Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1926
- Selected Judgments of the Divisional Courts of the Gold Coast, 1st April 1931 to 31st December 1937. Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1926.
- Selected Judgments of the Full Courts. Accra: Gold Coast Government Printer, 1900s-
- West African Court of Appeals. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1961-1962. 15 vols (covering cases decided between 1930 and 1956).
- West African Law Reports. Achimota: West Africa Law Publishing, 1956-1958. 3 vols. (covering cases decided 1956 to 1958).
Presently, the Ghana Law Reports remains the sole official reporter for Ghanaian cases. Published by the Council for Law Reporting, a statutory body under the office of the Attorney-General and Ministry of Justice, it is dedicated only to decisions of the Superior Courts of Ghana. Its publication record has been spotty. It has been published between 1959 and 1968, 1971 and 2005, 2006 and 2007. and 2008 and 2009.
14. Unofficial Law Reports
- Ghana Law Reports. Durban: Lexis-Nexis South Africa, 1959 - (electronic resource).
- Supreme Court of Ghana Law Reports. Accra: Advanced Legal Publications, 1996- .
- Earnshaw, Gold Coast Judgments (1910). Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1976.
- King-Farlow Gold Coast Judgments (1917). Accra Accra-Tema: Council for Law Reporting, 1976.
- Renner’s Gold Coast Reports. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1915 (covering cases decided between 1861 and 1914). 2 vols.
- Sarbah, John Mensah. Fanti Customary Law. 2nd ed. London: W. Clowes, 1904.
- Sarbah, John Mensah. Fanti Law Reports. London: W. Clowes, 1904.
- Woodman, Gordon R. Reports of Land Cases Decided in Ghana during the Period. In the Divisional Courts, Together with Certain Cases in the Courts of the Chief Commissioners for Ashanti and the Northern Territories. Accra: General Legal Council of Ghana, 1968-1970.
Ghana Legal Information Institute, as part of the African Legal Information Institute initiative has commenced an unofficial publication of Ghanaian Superior Court cases, notably Supreme Court and Court of Appeals cases. Presently, they have published 566 Supreme Court cases covering the period from 1962 to 2020 and 166 Court of Appeals cases covering the period from 1959 to 2020. Plans are afoot to add decisions of the High Court. The published decisions are available on the Institute’s website.
15. Common Law in Ghana
Article 11 (2) of the 1992 Constitution identifies common law as a source of law in Ghana. Common law is defined to include the rules generally known as common law, the rules generally known as doctrines of equity and rules of customary law including those determined by the Superior Court of Judicature.
15.1. The Rules Generally Known as Common Law
This is a reference to judge-made laws that propelled the English legal system and those of its colonies. In the context of Ghana’s legal history, even present-day British decisions on issues unaffected by statute may be cited, at least as persuasive authority.
For some time, even outmoded British statutes, which were a part of the received law, as “Statutes of general application” as of July 24th, 1874, under the erstwhile Supreme Court Ordinance of 1876, were applicable in Ghana. In 1982, by Section 61 of P.N.D.C. Law 42, the revolutionary government clearly modified the force of colonial legislation as follows:
“Notwithstanding the provisions of any enactment, all laws in existence before the coming into force of the Proclamation, especially where they are derived from foreign sources, shall only be in operation to the extent that they are compatible with national aspirations.”
15.2. The Rules Generally Known as Equity
This is a reference to the English doctrines of equity as they have evolved in England and Ghana.
16. Customary Law
Article 11(3) of the 1992 Constitution defines customary law as the rules of law, which by custom are applicable to particular communities. Customary law is now a question of law to be determined by the courts. In Muslim communities, the reference to customary law is a reference to Islamic law or the Sharia.
Customary law is not codified. Under Sections 42 and 43 of the Ghana Chieftaincy Act, 1971 (Act 370), as amended by Chieftaincy (Amendment) Decree, 1973 (NRCD 166), Chieftaincy (Amendment) (No. 2) Decree, 1973 (NRCD 226), Chieftaincy (Amendment) Law, 1982 (PNDCL25) and Chieftaincy (Amendment) Law, 1993 (PNDCL 307), the National House of Chiefs and/or a Regional House of Chiefs, can draft their declaration of customary law for approval and publication as a legislative instrument by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice.
Since 2006, the National House of Chiefs in partnership with the Ghana Law Reform Commission has commenced a project for the Ascertainment and Codification of Customary Law, especially in the areas of land ownership and family life. The project is still in progress.
The singular attempt at creating a standard legal citation format may be found in the twin articles of Janet Daniels in 1971 and 1972, namely, “The Practitioner’s Guide to the Effective Use of Ghana’s Law Reports” 3 Review of Ghana Law 5-21 (1971) and “Statute Law in Ghana” 4 Review of Ghana Law 113- 128 (1972). Although dated, they remain a good foundation to build on. Among other things, the earlier article provides an index to the abbreviations used in Ghanaian legal literature. The Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations, which covers the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions, including Ghana, is a useful supplement to that effort. Below is an index to some of the most popular abbreviations found in Ghanaian legal literature, in alphabetical order:
Armed Forces Revolutionary Council Decree
Acts of the Constituent Assembly
Court of Appeals
D. & F.
Divisional and Full Court Judgments
Gordon Woodman’s Ghana Land Cases
Selected Judgments of the Divisional Courts
Earnshaw Gold Coast Judgments (1910)
Full Court Judgments
G. & G.
Gyandoh, S.O. and J.A. Griffiths. A Sourcebook of the Constitutional Law of Ghana
Ghana Law Reports
Ghana Law Reports Digest
King-Farlow Gold Coast Judgments
National Liberation Council Decree
National Redemption Council Decree
Provisional National Defence Council Law
Renner Gold Coast Reports
Review of Ghana Law
Sarbah Fanti Customary Law
Sarbah Fanti Law Reports
Supreme Court of Ghana Law Reports
Supreme Military Council Decree
University of Ghana Law Journal
Selected Judgments of the West African Court of Appeals
West African Law Reports
18. Legal Periodicals
Presently, there are six legal periodicals in Ghana. The older two are indexed in the Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals. These periodicals are:
- Banking and Financial Law Journal of Ghana. Accra: Legal Research Center, 1998-
- Ghana School of Law Students’ Law Journal. Accra: Students’ Representative Council of the Ghana School of Law, 2012-
- GIMPA Law Review. Accra: Faculty of Law, GIMPA Law School, 2015-
- Lancaster University Ghana Law Journal. Accra:
- Review of Ghana Law. Accra: Council for Law Reporting, 1969-
- University of Ghana Law Journal. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1964- (available on heinonline)
The following are legal periodicals that also show a decided interest in Ghanaian legal literature:
- African Human Rights Law Journal, Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press, 2000- (electronic resource, available free of charge and on HeinOnline).
- African Journal of Legal Studies. Ottawa: Africa Law Institute, 2004- (electronic resource available via HeinOnline).
- African Journal of International and Comparative Law London: African Society of International and Comparative Law, 1989- .
- Bulletin of Legal Developments. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 1966.
- Commonwealth Law Bulletin. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 1974.
- International and Comparative Law Quarterly. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 1952- .
- Journal of African Law. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 1957- .
- Journal of Legal Pluralism. Los Angeles: Foundation for the Journal of Legal Pluralism, 1981.
- Legal Brief Africa (electronic resource).
19. Selected Bibliography of Ghanaian Secondary Materials
- Adjei, Dennis. Modern Approach to the Law of Interpretation in Ghana. Accra: Adwinsa Publications (Gh.) Ltd, 2015
- Bimpong-Buta, S.Y. The Law of Interpretation in Ghana. Accra: Advanced Legal Publications, 1995.
- Daniels, William C. E. Common Law in West Africa. London: Butterworths, 1964.
- Daniels, Williams C.E. and Gordon R. Woodman. Essays in Ghanaian Law. Legon: Faculty of Law, University of Ghana, 1976.
- Ghana Law Reform Commission. The Law Reform Commission Report on the Legal System. Accra: The Commission, 1986.
- Harvey, William B. Law and Social Change in Ghana. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.
- Mensa-Bonsu, Henrietta J.A.N. et al. Ghana Law Since Independence: History, Development and Prospects. Accra: Black Mask for Faculty of Law, University of Ghana, Legon, 2007.
- Mensah, Kwamina and Christopher Nyinevi. The Lawyer’s Companion: A Guide to Researching Ghanaian Case Law-Cases from 1959 to 2015. Accra: Kwamina Mensah & Christopher Nyinevi, 2016.
- Quansah, Emmanuel K. The Ghana Legal System. Accra: Black Mask Ltd., 2011
- Redwar, Henry W.H. Comments on Some Ordinances of the Gold Coast Colony. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1909.
- Sarbah, John M. The Writings of John Mensah Sarbah. Bristol: Thoemes, 2004.
19.2. Constitutional and Administrative Law
- Amissah, Austin N.E. The Contribution of the Courts to Government. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1981
- Ayensu, K.B. and S.N. Darkwa. The Evolution of Parliament in Ghana. Rev ed. Accra: Sub-Saharan Publishers, 2006.
- Bennion, Francis A.R. The Constitutional Law of Ghana. London: Butterworths, 1962.
- Date-Bah, Samuel K. On Law and Liberty in Contemporary Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2008.
- Date-Bah, Samuel K.. Reflections on the Supreme Court of Ghana. London, U.K.: Wildy, Simmonds & Hill Publishing, 2015.
- Kumado, Kofi and Samuel O. Gyandoh. Gyandoh and Griffiths’s Sourcebook of the Constitutional Law of Ghana. 2d ed. 2 vols. Accra, Ghana: Black Mask, 2009.
- Opoku-Agyemang, Maxwell. Constitutional Law and History of Ghana. Accra: Maxwell Opoku-Agyemang, 2009.
- Rubin, Leslie and Pauli Murray. The Constitution and Government of Ghana. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1961
19.3. Civil Obligations, Commercial and Company Law
- Abdallah, Ali-Nakyea. Taxation in Ghana: Principles, Practice and Planning. Accra: Black Mask Ltd., 2014.
- Amegatcher, Andrew Ofoe. Ghanaian Law of Copyright. Accra: Omega Law Publishers, 2014.
- Bondzi-Simpson, P. Ebow. Company Law in Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Methodist Dook Depot, 1998
- Bondzi-Simpson, P. Ebow. Law of Contract: with Special Reference to the Law of Ghana. 2d ed. Accra, Ghana: Avant Associates, 2010
- Business in Ghana- A Handbook of Laws and Regulations. Accra: Sozo Law Consult, 2000.
- Djokoto, Godwin. The Law of Mortgages in Ghana. Accra: Frontiers Printing and Publishing, 2017.
- Dowuona-Hammond, Christine. The Law of Contract in Ghana. Accra: Frontiers Printing & Publishing, 2011
- Essays from the Ghana-Valco Renegotiations, 1982-85. Fui S. Tsikata, ed. Accra, Ghana: Volta River Authority, 1986.
- Essien, Victor L.K. Private Foreign Investment and African Economic Development: A Case Study of the Ghana Aluminum Industry. (microform) Buffalo: Hein, 1995.
- Ghartey, Joe. Doing Business and Investing in Ghana: Legal and Institutional Framework. Accra, Ghana: Janel Publications, 2004.
- International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation. African Tax System. Amsterdam: I.B.F.D. 1970-
- Kumado, Kofi. Introduction to the Law of Torts in Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Black Mask, 2009.
- Kumbour, Benjamin, Law of Taxation in Ghana. Accra: Type Publishers , 2017
- Lamoureux, Martin. Introduction au Droit Ghaneen des Contrats. Bruxelles: Bruylant, 2004.
- Offei, Stephen. The Law of Torts in Ghana: Text, Cases and Materials. Kumasi: Ghana Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 2014
- Oppong, Richard Frimpong. Private International Law in Ghana. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2012
- Pozen, Robert C. The British Public Corporation in Ghana: Legal Transfers to the Third World. (microform) Buffalo: Hein, 1996.
- Turkson, Richard B. Law and Economic Development: A Study of Public Corporations in Ghana. (microform) Buffalo: Hein, 1996.
- Uche, U.U. Contractual Obligations in Ghana and Nigeria. London: Cass, 1971.
- Yankey, George S. International Patents and Technology Transfer to Less Developed Countries: The Case of Ghana and Nigeria. Brookfield: Gower, 1987.
19.4. Criminal Law and Procedure
- Adjei, Dennis. Contemporary Criminal Law in Ghana. Accra: Dennis Dominic Adjei, 2017.
- Amissah, Austin N.E. Criminal Procedure in Ghana. Accra: Sedco, 1982.
- Mensa-Bonsu, Henrietta J. A.N. The Annotated Criminal and Other Offences (Procedure) Act of Ghana (Act 30, Act 653). Accra: Black Mask, 2009.
- Mensa-Bonsu, Henrietta J.A.N.. The Annotated Criminal Offences Act of Ghana. Accra: Black Mask, 2008.
- Mensa-Bonsu, Henrietta J.A.N. The General Part of Criminal Law- A Ghanaian Casebook. 2 vols. Accra: Black Mask, 2001.
- Saloko, John. Abuse and Misuse of the Law of Domestic Violence in Ghana. Ghana: Centre for Community Studies, 2017.
- Twumasi, Paul K. Criminal Law in Ghana. Accra-Tema: Ghana Publishing Corporation, 1985.
- Brobbey, S.A. Essentials of the Ghana Law of Evidence. Accra: Datro Publications, 2014.
- Ofori-Boateng, J. The Ghana Law of Evidence. 2nd ed. Accra, Ghana: Waterville Pub House, 2000.
- Vukor-Quarshie, George. The Law of Evidence of Ghana. (microform) Buffalo: Hein, 1996.
19.6. Family Law, Chieftaincy, Equity and Succession
- Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederica. At a Glance: The Marriages Act and the Matrimonial Causes Act Dissected. (With Relevant Case Law). Accra: Frederica Ahwireng-Obeng, 2017.
- Brobbey, S.A. The Law of Chieftaincy in Ghana: Incorporating Customary Arbitration, Contempt of Court, Judicial Review. Accra, Ghana: Advanced Legal Publishers, 2008.
- Fenrich, Jeanmarie and Tracy E. Higgins. Promise Unfulfilled: Law, Culture and Women’s Inheritance Rights in Ghana. New York: Fordham University School of Law Joseph R. Crowley Program in International Human Rights, 2003.
- Children’s Rights in Ghana: Reality or Rhetoric. Robert K. Ame, DeBrenna L.F. Agbenyiga & Nana Araba Apt, eds., New York: Lexington Books, 2011.
- Josiah-Aryeh, Nii Armah. Ghana Law of Wills, Accra, Ghana: Sakumo Publishers, 2005.
- An Outline of Islamic Customary Law in Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Sakumo Publishers, 2005.
- Kludze, Anselmus K. P. Chieftaincy in Ghana. Lanham, Md: Austin and Winfield, 2000.
- Modern Law of Succession in Ghana. Manassas, Virginia: Kludze Publications, 2015.
- Modern Principles of Equity: An Exposition with Particular Reference to Ghana. Providence: Foris Publications, 1988.
- Offei, William E. Family Law in Ghana. 3d ed. Accra-North, Ghana: William E. Offei, 2007.
- Ollennu, Nii A. The Law of Testate and Intestate Succession in Ghana. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1966.
19.7. Labor Law
- Frimpong, Kwadwo Critique of the Law and Practice of Collective Labor Relations in Ghana. (microform) Buffalo: Hein, 1996.
- Manteaw, Samuel Obeng and Ama Fowaa Hammond. Migration Law in Ghana. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2018.
- Mills, James O. Labour Law. Accra: Centre for Professional Development, 2014.
- Obeng-Fosu, Patrick. Industrial Relations in Ghana: The Law and Practice. Accra: Ghana University Press, 1991.
19.8. Land Law
- Adjei, Dennis. Land Law, Practice and Conveyancing in Ghana. Accra: Adwinsa Publications (Gh.) Ltd., 2015.
- Amanor, Kojo S. Global Restructuring and Land Rights in Ghana. Upsalla: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1999.
- Asante, Samuel K.B. Property Law and Social Goals in Ghana, 1844-1966. Accra: Ghana University Press, 1975.
- Asante, Samuel K.B. The Property Significance of the Idea of Trusteeship in the Ghanaian Conception of Ownership. (Microform). Buffalo: Hein, 1996.
- Bentsi-Enchill, Kwamena. Ghana Land Law: An Exposition, Analysis and Critique. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1964.
- Da Rocha, B.J. and C.H.K. Lodoh. Ghana Land Law and Conveyancing. 2nd ed. Accra, Ghana: DR & L Print & Pub Services, 1999.
- Kludze, Anselmus K.P. Ewe Law of Property. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1973.
- Ollennu, Nii A. and Gordon R. Woodman. Principles of Customary Land Law in Ghana.2nd ed. Birmingham: CAL Press, 1985.
- Sarpong, George A. Ghanaian Environmental Law: International and National Perspectives. London: Wildy, Simmonds & Hill, 2018.
- Woodman, Gordon R. Customary Land Law in the Ghanaian Courts. Accra: Ghana University Press, 1996.
19.9. Legal Profession
- Ghana Law Reform Commission. The Law Reform Commission Report on the Legal Profession in Ghana. Accra: The Commission, 1986.
- Luckham, Robin. The Ghana Legal Profession: The Natural History of a Research Project.
Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 1977.
19.10. Media Law
- Amegatcher, Andrew O. The Law of the Press: A Ghanaian Perspective. Accra, Ghana: Omega (Law) Pub, 1998.
19.11. Practice and Procedure
- Amissah, Austin N.E. Criminal Procedure in Ghana. Accra: Sedco, 1982.
- Brobbey, S.A. Practice and Procedure in the Trial Courts and Tribunals of Ghana. Accra: Black Mask, 2000.
- Kom, Enoch D. Civil Procedure in the High Courts. Accra-Tema: Ghana Publishing Corporation, 1971.
- Korang, Daniel. Criminal Prosecution in Ghana. Accra: Daniel Korang, 2017.
20. Multi-Jurisdictional Sets and Databases with Significant Ghana Law Content
- Constitutions of the Countries of the World Online. London: Oxford University Press, 1971. (Subscription based)
- Country Reports of Human Rights Practices (U.S. Department of State)
- Doing Business Law Library (World Bank)
- Ecolex. A Gateway to Environmental Law (UNEP)
- Modern Legal Systems Cyclopedia. Kenneth R. Redden., Gen. Ed. Buffalo, New York: Hein, 1984.
- Natlex. Database of national labor, social security and related human rights legislation. (ILO).
- Hoffman, Marci, General Editor. Foreign Law Guide: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World (Fee)
- World Legal Information Institute
21. Legal Education and the Legal Profession
Under Section 1 of the Legal Profession Act, 1960 (Act 32), as amended, a General Legal Council is established and charged, among other things, with the organization of legal education in Ghana. Sections 13 and 14 of the same statute empower the Council, by legislative instrument, to prescribe regulations for establishing a system of legal education.
At present, the system of legal education involves an academic component completed at one of the many public and private universities and colleges that run programs towards the award of LL.B. degrees. The public Universities are the University of Ghana School of Law, the Law Faculty of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA) Law School and since 2013, the Law Faculty of the University of Cape Coast. The University of Professional Studies, Accra (UPSA) Law Faculty is the latest to join the ranks of public law faculties. The private institutions that now have programs leading to the award of LL.B. degrees include Central University, KAAS University College, Lancaster University Ghana, Mountcrest University College, Wisconsin International University College and Zenith University College in cooperation with University of London. The entry requirements for these institutions, both public and private, are certain minimum passes at the West African Secondary School Certificate Examinations (WASSCE), the Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations (SSSCE), or the General Certificate of Education (GCE) at Ordinary and Advanced Levels.
All of these institutions also offer LL.B. degrees for entrants who already have a first degree or higher in any field of study other than law. The latter group of entrants does the LL.B. program in three years at full time or four years at part-time. The former group undertakes the LL.B. degree in four years. In order to be admitted to practice law, however, all of these graduates are required to undertake a two-year professional law course at the Ghana Law School, after which they become eligible for a Qualifying Certificate in Law, also referred to as the Barrister-at-Law Certificate. To obtain this certificate, one must satisfactorily complete a course in customary law. To be enrolled as a lawyer, one has to demonstrate to the General Legal Council that they are of good moral character.
The Ghana Law School organizes a special 9-month program towards the Barrister-at-Law certificate for individuals who are already licensed to practice law in another common law jurisdiction. The main courses of study in the post-call program are criminal procedure, civil procedure, law of evidence, family law and practice, law of interpretation of deeds and statutes, Ghana constitutional law and Ghana legal system. The main campus of the Ghana Law School is at Makola, Accra. It has now opened three additional satellite campuses, respectively, at the University of Ghana, Legon, KNUST Law Faculty at Kumasi and the GIMPA Law Faculty, at Greenhill, Accra. As a result of the proliferation of feeder LL.B. programs, the Ghana Law School receives far more applicants than their facilities can accommodate. The Ghana Law School instituted an entrance examination and interview for prospective students.
In addition, the General Legal Council set up an Independent Examination Board to administer the entrance examination process. This initiative has met with criticism and eventually a lawsuit challenging the legality of the General Legal Council’s measures was filed. This lawsuit, Asare v. General Legal Council, was decided by the Ghana Supreme Court on June 22, 2017. The Court held, inter alia, that even though by Section 14 of the Legal Professions Act, 1960 (Act 32), the General Legal Council is authorized to make regulations and can craft new requirements governing admission to the Ghana Law School, it must do so by first amending its regulations through a legislative instrument. By introducing new admissions requirements without amending its old legislative instrument, the Council had acted unconstitutionally. Meanwhile, Parliament is presently considering the Legal Profession (Amendment) Bill, 2018, which is aimed at rationalizing legal education in Ghana.
Since 1971, only persons with at least an undergraduate degree may be enrolled as lawyers. The legal profession is regulated by the Legal Profession Act, 1960 (Act 32) as amended by the Legal Profession (Amendment) Act, 1963 (Act 166), the Legal Profession (Amendment) Act, 1964 (Act 226), the Legal Profession (Amendment) Decree, 1966 (NLCD 20), the Legal Profession (Amendment) Decree, 1967 ( NLCD 143), the Legal Profession (Amendment) (No.2) Decree, 1967 (NLCD 213), the Legal Profession (Amendment) Decree, 1969, ( NLCD 338) , the Legal Profession (Amendment) Decree, 1972( NRCD 88) the Legal Profession (Amendment) Decree, 1979 (AFRCD 53), the Legal Service Act, 1993 (P.N.D.C.L. 320), the Legal Service Act (Amendment) Act, 1994 (Act 487), the Professional Bodies Registration Decree, 1973 (NRCD 143) and the Legal Profession (Professional Conduct and Etiquette) Rules, 1969 (L.I. 613).
The General Legal Council is the statutory body regulating the profession. The legal profession in Ghana does not observe the dichotomy between solicitors and barristers, inspired by the common law. Section 2 of the Legal Profession Act, 1960 (Act 32) as amended, allows an individual enrolled as a lawyer to practice as a solicitor and a barrister, to be an officer of the court and to sue for and recover his fees. Since 2010, the General Legal Council has tightened the rules on the enrolment of lawyers and the registration of law chambers. The General Legal Council now requires that all practising lawyers in Ghana, apart from those working at the Attorney-General’s Department must belong to a Law Chambers or a Law Department. The General Legal Council has mandated the Ghana Bar Association to conduct inspections on its behalf to ensure compliance with these new rules of licensing and registration.
The Ghana Bar Association is the sole professional association for lawyers in Ghana. Although not the creature of statute, it is recognized even by the Constitution. For instance, the Constitution requires representatives of the Ghana Bar Association to serve on the Judicial Council (Article 153), the Police Service Council (Article 201), the Prison Service Council (Article 206) and Land Commission (Article 259), among others.
Article 75 of the 1992 Constitution grants the President the power to conclude treaties subject to ratification by an Act of Parliament or a resolution of Parliament supported by more than one-half of all members of Parliament. Ghana is a signatory to many international organizational treaties, including the UN Charter, the African Union Treaty and the Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). She is also a signatory to many economic development and human rights conventions. Ghana has signed bilateral treaties with other countries.
There is no official or unofficial collection or compilation of treaties to which Ghana is a party. In June 2009, the Ministry of Justice published an index of multilateral treaties to which Ghana is a party. Titled the Republic of Ghana Treaty Manual, it does not cover bilateral treaties and is limited to multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and treaties signed under the auspices of the African Union (AU) and the Economic Communities of West African States (ECOWAS). It does not provide citations to any of these treaties and merely refers readers to the websites of the three sponsoring organizations. To discover multilateral treaties in force in Ghana, one may consult the Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations, 1982. This online resource will link to the full text of these treaties. In addition, one can access the full texts of treaties to which Ghana is a party on the following websites:
- environmental treaties
- water treaties at fao.org
- food, agriculture and natural resources management treaties
- human rights treaties
- international labor standards
- wipo-administered treaties
- African Union treaties
- ECOWAS law
Ghana has two official daily newspapers, namely, the Daily Graphic and the Ghanaian Times. Each of these has weekly companion publications, the Mirror and the Weekly Spectator, respectively. There are also several private daily and weekly newspapers. The better ones all have a web presence or online editions. You can access online versions of Ghanaian newspapers through their links on Ghanaweb.com.