UPDATE: Regional Trade Agreements in Africa – A Historical and Bibliographic Account of ECOWAS and CEMAC
By Victor Essien
Update by Miarom Bégoto
Miarom Bégoto holds a Bachelor's degree in Private Law from the University of N'Djamena, Chad and two Masters in Private Law and Public Law, Human Rights option from the University of Lyon 2 and Grenoble 2, France. He teaches at the National School of Administration of Chad and has held senior positions in the Chadian administration, including the Ministry of Justice and the former Supreme Audit Institution, which became chamber in the Supreme Court. Elected as a member of the African Union Advisory Board on Corruption, he is currently the chairperson.
Published March 2019
(Previously updated by Victor Essien in September 2014)
Table of Contents
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS)
- 3. Communaute Economique Et Monetaire De l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC)
- 4. Compilation of Treaties, Protocols and Conventions of ECOWAS
- 5. Compilation of Treaties, Protocols, Conventions of CEMAC
- 6. Compilations of ECOWAS Regulations, Decisions and Directives
- 7. Compilations of CEMAC Basic Acts, Regulations and Basic Regulations
- 8. Significant Treaties and Organic Texts
- 9. Treatises, Books and Reports on African Regional Integration
- 10. Treatises, Books, and Reports on ECOWAS
- 11. Treatises, Books, and Reports on CEMAC
- 12. Sectoral Analysis of ECOWAS
- 13. Sectoral Analysis of CEMAC
- 14. Conflict Prevention, Peace and Security Issues
- 15. Bibliographic Works, Indices, Charts and Other Reference Aids
Efforts at regional and sub-regional integration in Africa go back to the immediate postcolonial period. It was seen as an extension of the liberation movements and an effort to construct geographic entities that were economically viable and politically united. It also reflected the prevailing European experience with its emphasis on free trade within a common external tariff area.
Regional or sub-regional integration in Africa has met with limited success on account of several factors. Chief among them are the parallel and often competing groupings that divert the needed political will to succeed; the conflict with the developmental objectives and expectations of their development partners, usually the former colonial masters or their associated groupings; conflict between national structures and policies and group objectives and agenda; personality conflicts; infra-structural constraints, institutional constraints, and national security constraints.
The promise that integration holds, in the form of the enlargement of local markets, the realization of economies of scale and the strengthening of bargaining positions in global negotiations is a sufficient allure to make the countries of Africa try time and again to forge these regional trade agreements. ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States and CEMAC, the Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale represent two major efforts at regional integration in Africa.
2. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
The treaty establishing the ECOWAS was signed in Lagos, Nigeria on May 28th, 1975 by the heads of state and governments of 14 West African nations, namely Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. Guinea Bissau acceded to the Treaty later in 1975. In 1979, Cape Verde became the 16th member nation. In 2002, Mauritania, an original member nation, formally withdrew its membership in the organization. In accordance with the terms of the treaty, the treaty came into force in June 1975 with the ratification by seven states.
Article 2(1) of the 1975 Treaty described the aims of the Community as follows:
“... to promote co-operation and development in all fields of economic activity particularly in the fields of industry, transport, telecommunications, energy, agriculture, natural resources, commerce, monetary and financial questions and in social and cultural matters for the purpose of raising the standard of living of its peoples, of increasing and maintaining economic stability, of fostering closer relations among its members and of contributing to the progress and development of the African continent”.
Article 2(2) of this Treaty explains that the Community shall by stages ensure (emphasis added):
- “(a) the elimination as between the Member States of customs duties and other charges of equivalent effect in respect of the importation and exportation of goods;
- (b) the abolition of quantitative and administrative restrictions on trade among the Member States;
- (c) the establishment of a common customs tariff and a common commercial policy towards third countries;
- (d) the abolition as between the Member States of the obstacles to the free movement of persons, services and capital;
- (e) the harmonization of the agricultural policies and the promotion of common projects in the Member States, notably in the fields of marketing, research and afro-industrial enterprises;
- (f) the implementation of schemes for the joint development of transport, communication, energy and the infra-structural facilities as well as the evolution of a common policy in these fields;
- (g) the harmonization of the economic and industrial policies of the Member States and the elimination of disparities in the level of development of Member States;
- (h) the harmonization, required for the proper functioning of the Community, of the monetary policies of the Member States;
- the establishment of a Fund for Co-operation, Compensation and Development; and
- (j) such of the activities calculated to further the aims of the Community....”
To carry out these aims, the Treaty created the following institutions.:
The Authority of Heads of State and Government (AHSG), the principal governing institution of the Community whose decisions and directives shall be binding on all Community Institutions.
The Council of Ministers (COM), consisting of two representatives of each Member State and subordinate only to the AHSG. It is the responsibility of the COM to keep under review the functioning and development of the Community and to make recommendations to the AHSG on matters of policy aimed at the efficient and harmonious functioning and development of the Community.
The Executive Secretariat, which is headed by an Executive Secretary who is the principal executive officer of the Community. The Executive Secretary and other officers of the Secretariat, in the discharge of their duties, owe their loyalty entirely to the Community.
In addition to these community institutions, the 1975 Treaty established four technical and specialized Commissions in these fields: trade customs, immigration, monetary and payments; industry, agriculture and natural resources; transport, telecommunications and energy; and social and cultural affairs. Each Commission shall have a representative of a member state and any number of advisors.
The Treaty also established the office of an External Auditor and a Tribunal of the Community. The latter was charged with the responsibility of settling disputes among member states regarding the interpretation or application of the Treaty that could not be settled amicably by direct agreement.
What the Treaty wrought in 1975 was a grouping of sixteen countries of uneven size, with Nigeria providing over 65 per cent of the population and trade. Ghana, Senegal and Cote d’Ivoire provided a further 20 percent while the remaining twelve countries provided 15 percent among them. The political geography of ECOWAS also dictated that it was a grouping of coastal and landlocked countries, with the latter countries depending on the former partners for transport services and trade. Significantly, there are linguistic barriers inherited from the colonial era. Nine of the countries are Francophone, five are Anglophone and two are Lusophone. Added to this, was the deliberate pull of the metropolitan countries away from ECOWAS. For example, as the idea of ECOWAS was gaining ground, France encouraged the Francophone West African States to transform a moribund regional organization into the Communaute Economique de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEAO) with similar objectives as ECOWAS.
Similarly, the negotiations to revise the ECOWAS Treaty in 1992-1993 coincided with the emergence of the Francophones’ new union, the Union Economique et Monetaire de l’Ouest Afrique (UEMOA), which was externally guaranteed by France.
The 1975 Treaty had envisaged the establishment of a common market in fifteen years. Given the many logistical, infra-structural, financial and political obstacles and problems, this was not realistic. In the end, the much-anticipated increase in intra-regional trade did not materialize and the many protocols for the elimination of trade barriers were not honored. In short, most economic activity in the region was unaffected by the organization and its goals.
Expectedly, in 1993, the Treaty was revised to rationalize the aims and objectives of the Community and to improve upon the limitations of the past.
The revised Treaty clarified the aims and objectives of the Community. In particular, it emphasized the establishment of an economic union through the adoption of common policies in the economic, financial, social and cultural sectors and the creation of a monetary union.
The Revised Treaty also identified the ECOWAS as ultimately the sole economic community in the region for the purpose of economic integration and the pillar for the realization of the African Economic Community.
In addition, the Treaty provided for certain fundamental principles, among them, the promotion and consolidation of a democratic system of governance in the Member States.
The revised Treaty, established, additional community institutions, namely, the Community Parliament, the Economic and Social Council and the Arbitration Tribunal. The 1975 Treaty Community Tribunal was transformed into a full-fledged Community Court of Justice.
The Revised Treaty further defined the nature of community legislation. The AHSG was described to act by decisions while the COM has to act by regulations. Decisions of the AHSG are binding on the Member States and all community institutions. Regulations of the COM are binding on all subordinate community institutions and bind Member States only upon their approval by the AHSG.
Decisions and regulations shall be adopted depending on the subject matter under consideration by unanimity, consensus or two-thirds majority.
The revised Treaty placed on the Executive Secretary the responsibility to publish all decisions of the AHSG as well as the regulations of the COM, 30 days after the date of signature.  Such decisions and regulations automatically enter into force 60 days after the date of their publication in the Official Journal of the Community. The Treaty also requires each Member State to publish the decisions and regulations in their national Official Gazette within 30 days of their signature.
In addition to the decisions and regulations defined in the Treaty, other secondary legislation come in the form of resolutions, recommendations and declarations. Such legislation do not become binding until they are issued as decisions or regulations.
The revised Treaty recognized the penchant of the Member States to enter into international agreements with both member States and non-member states. However, the Treaty requires member states to avoid obligations that are incompatible with their obligations under the ECOWAS Treaty and to adopt common positions when dealing with non-member states and other international or regional organizations.
In 2006, almost thirteen years after the revised Treaty, the most significant results of ECOWAS had been those concerning organizational matters such as the drafting of protocols and conduct of studies.
The implementation of treaty obligations, however left a lot to be desired. Genuine attempts at implementation were also undercut by other measures. On the issue of free movement of persons, at its 23rd session in May 2000, the AHSG adopted and launched the ECOWAS passport in consecration of the ECOWAS citizenship. The passport was to be introduced in the Member States and the national passports were to be phased out in five years. For many years, only Benin and Senegal had introduced the ECOWAS passport.
Subsequently, other States caught on. By 2012, eleven of the fifteen States had finally adopted the ECOWAS passport (2012 Annual Report of the ECOWAS Commission, at p. 62). Even so, although visas have been abolished for nationals of Member States, there are a large number of checkpoints, which remain a constant source of harassment and frustration for ECOWAS travelers.
The pre-eminent objective of creating a common market had not fared any better. In pursuance of this objective, the Community adopted a trade liberalization scheme aimed at the elimination of custom duties and taxes of equivalent effect on imports of ECOWAS origin since 1981 and the abolition of non-tariff barriers to intra-ECOWAS trade by May 28, 1985. The ECOWAS Fund for Cooperation; Compensation and Development was established to make compensation for loss of customs revenue under the liberalization scheme. The 2002 report of the Executive Secretary of ECOWAS, for instance, noted that:
“Regrettably the Executive Secretariat continues to receive complaints from Member States and economic operators about cases of refusal or failure to implement the scheme. Indeed it is a fact that Member States still maintain non-tariff barriers such as bans and the requirement of special permits, against products of ECOWAS origin.”
ECOWAS had recorded limited success in the area of infrastructural development. The coastal highway and the Sahelian highway had attained a high realization rate. Studies had been initiated for a regional railway master plan. ECOWAS was cooperating with CEMAC under the Yamoussoukro Decision to increase air transport activities with the principal support of the World Bank and the European Union.
By early 2006, it had become obvious that, as an integrative structure, ECOWAS was underperforming. As a remedy, the 30th Ordinary Summit of the Heads of States and Government in January 2006 adopted decisions aimed at deepening and accelerating the integration process of ECOWAS. It aimed to enhance the supranational powers of the organization and, in effect, introduce a new legal regime.
On June 14, 2006, these decisions were promulgated as Supplementary Protocol A/SP.1/06/06 Amending the Revised Treaty of 1993. Under this Supplementary Protocol, the ECOWAS Secretariat was transformed into a nine-member Commission, comprising a President, a Vice-President and seven Commissioners.
The Supplementary Protocol also approved a new structure for the ECOWAS Parliament to allow the institution to fully play its role in the integration process. An additional Act on strengthening Parliament's prerogatives was adopted in December 2016 and is currently in the implementation phase.
The Summit further confirmed the enhancement of the institutional capacity of the Community Court of Justice to ensure that ECOWAS possesses a strong and independent court.
The Supplementary Protocol established a new legal regime, under which the existing institutions of ECOWAS continue to exercise their norm-creating authority with slightly modified nomenclature and redefined legal consequences. Community Acts, under the new regime, are to be known as Supplementary Acts, Regulations, Directives, Decisions, Recommendations and Opinions. The AHSG adopts Supplementary Acts while the COM enacts Regulations, issue Directives, take Decisions or formulate Recommendations and Opinions. The Commission, the erstwhile, Secretariat, may adopt Rules relating to the execution of Acts enacted by the COM. The Rules so adopted by the Commission are to have the same legal force as Acts adopted by the COM for the execution of which the Rules are adopted. The Commission may also formulate Recommendations and Opinions (New Article 9).
Supplementary Acts adopted by the Authority shall be binding on the Community Institutions and Member States, where they shall be directly applicable. Regulations shall have general application. The provisions of Regulations shall be binding and directly applicable in Member States. They are to be equally binding on the Community institutions. Directives are binding on all Member States in terms of the objectives to be realized but Member States are free to adopt modalities they deem appropriate for the realization of such objectives. Decisions are binding on all those to whom they are addressed. Recommendations and opinions are not legally binding (New Article 9).
Unless otherwise provided, Community Acts under consideration shall be adopted by unanimity, consensus or by a two-thirds majority of the Member States. (New Article 9).
On balance, ECOWAS remains of marginal interest to the western countries. Apart from Nigeria’s oil exports to the U.S. and Niger’s uranium to France and possibly France’s continuous alliance with is former colonies, ECOWAS is only a source of strife and of economic, demographic and environmental crises. Its relevance to the West may be in the form of its ECOMOG forces in the security issues in the Region and saving the Western nations from direct involvement in foreign conflicts.
3. Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC)
CEMAC is a re-incarnation of one of the oldest regional trade agreements in Africa. In its prior life, it was known as the Union Douaniere et Economique de l’Afrique Centrale (UDEAC). On June 23, 1959, immediately before gaining independence from France, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo and Gabon, the four members of the erstwhile Federation de l’Afrique Equatorial Francaise signed a convention creating an Equatorial African Customs Union, the Union Douaniere Equatoriale (UDE).
On December 8, 1964, the UDE and free-standing Cameroon signed a treaty creating the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC). It was not until 1983, that Equatorial Guinea became its sixth member.
In the late 1960s, the UDEAC was plagued by dissension. Central African Republic (CAR) and Chad, the less industrialized members among them threatened to withdraw. Under pressure from France, CAR returned fully to the fold. Chad was to return much later.
The UDEAC Treaty underwent its first major revision in 1975. The 1975 Treaty did not increase the authority or powers of the Secretariat as the member countries were still consumed with the notion of sovereign integrity.
Eventually, following the economic crises of 1980 to 1990, the six countries became convinced of the need for a more dynamic integration and signed a new treaty on March 16, 1994 establishing the Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC). 
The 1994 CEMAC Treaty stated that its essential mission was to promote the harmonious development of the Member States within the framework of a true common market.
To achieve this, it set out the following objectives under the rubric of two of its institutions, namely, the Union Economique de l’Afrique Centrale (UEAC) and the Union Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale (UMAC):
- To set up a multilateral device of monitoring the economic and financial policies of the Member States;
- To ensure a stable management of the common currency;
- To make safe the environment of the economic activities and the businesses in general;
- To harmonize the regulation of the sectoral policies in the essential fields prescribed by the Treaty, namely, agriculture, fisheries, industry, trade, tourism, transport and telecommunications, energy and environment, research, teaching and vocational training;
- To create a common market based on freedom of movement of persons, goods, services and capital.
The Treaty identified the four community institutions as follows:
- The Union Economique de l’Afrique Centrale (UEAC);
- The Union Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale (UMAC);
- The Parliament Communitaire (P.C.);
- The Court de Justice Communautaire (C.J.C.)
- The Supreme Audit Court of CEMAC (Cour des Comptes de la CEMAC)
The CEMAC thus constitutes a link between the Monetary Union, the Bank of Central African States (BEAC), the Customs Union, and the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC). To carry out the objectives of CEMAC, the Treaty also created the following principal organs:
The Conference of Heads of States (COHS), which is described as the supreme body of the Community. The COHS determines the policy of CEMAC and directs the actions of the decision-making bodies of the two constituent unions, UEAC and UMAC, by means of supplementary acts.
The Council of Ministers (COM) of the UEAC is charged with the responsibility of directing the UEAC. It is made up primarily of the Ministers in charge of Finance and Economic Affairs of the Member States. Each national delegation should have no more than three members and shall have but one vote. When the issues under discussion do not relate to economic or financial policy, the COM shall bring together, ad-hoc, the relevant Ministers whose deliberations will be final only after adoption by the COM.
The Ministerial Committee (MC) of the UMAC is charged with the responsibility of directing the UMAC. It is composed of two Ministers per Member State with the Minister of Finance as head of the delegation. Unlike the COM whose Presidency is determined and identical to the nationality of the member state presiding over the COHS, the Presidency of the MC is rotated annually among the member states in alphabetical order.  The role of the MC is to examine the economic trends within the member states and to ensure coherence with the common monetary policy.
The Executive Secretariat or Secretariat Executive (SE) is headed by an Executive Secretary who is the principal executive officer of the UEAC.
Inter-State Committee or Comite Inter-Etats (CIE); The Banque des Etats de l’Afrique Centrale (BEAC):The Commission Bancaire de l’Afrique Centrale (COBAC); The Institution de Financement du Developpement (IFD); The Financial Market Supervisory Commission for Central Africa (Commission de Surveillance du Marché Financier d’Afrique Centrale, COSUMAF).
The COHS acts by means of Supplementary Acts to the Treaty. These are supposed to supplement the Treaty without modifying same. These Supplementary Acts are binding on the community institutions and organs as well as on the member states. The COM and the MC act by means of regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations or opinions.
The regulations and the basic regulations are of general application. The regulations are binding in all respects and directly on all member states. The basic regulations are binding directly only as to certain respects.
The directives are binding orders addressed to Member States requiring them to accomplish a stated purpose while leaving them free to select the form, in which, and the means by which that purpose is to be achieved.
The decisions are binding only upon the States or persons to whom they are addressed. The recommendations and opinions have no binding effect. The regulations, the basic regulations, the directives and the decisions of the COM, the MC, the S.E. and the Governor of the BEAC have to be warranted by law.
The supplementary acts, the regulations and basic regulations have to be published in the Official Bulletin of the Community. They come into effect on the date stipulated in the measure or in default, the twentieth day following their publication.
The directives and decisions take effect on the date following the day of notification to their addressees.
Although CEMAC was established in 1994, it was not until June 1999 that it became fully operational and replaced UDEAC. Little wonder that by 2008, the member states had not achieved much of their objectives under the CEMAC Treaty.
Trade within the region amounted to 2% of total imports and 1% of total exports.  Ironically trade between CEMAC and Nigeria was higher than trade among CEMAC countries. Bilateral trade between the European Union and CEMAC was about 7 billion Euros per year. The common market was still far away, and the economic integration was even further off. Pascal Lamy, the European Union’s Commissioner for International trade, cautioned that “CEMAC must start by developing a common market so as to ensure durable regional integration.”
In 2008, CEMAC caught the second wave of regionalization that had affected Africa and decided to move towards greater integration through supranationalism. The CEMAC Treaty was revised accordingly. By Article 63 of the Revised Treaty, the 1994 CEMAC Treaty and its Addendum were repealed. The Revised Treaty served notice of its supranationality under Article 2 by spelling out, first of all, that the essential mission of the organization is to promote peace and harmonious development among the Member States within the framework of the establishment of the pre-existing two unions, one economic and the other monetary. Secondly, by emphasizing that, in each of these two areas, the Member States agree to move from the existing inter-state cooperation to a union capable of completing the economic and monetary integration process.
The revised Treaty maintained most of the institutions and organs originally created under the earlier CEMAC Treaties but with more integrative functions and powers and, in the case of the Secretariat, converted it to a Commission just as the ECOWAS 2006 reform had done. The revised Treaty maintained the COHS as the governing body of the Community that sets Community policy and provides guidance for the work of the COM of the UEAC and the MC of the UMAC. The Revised Treaty also maintained the COM and the MC as community organs with similar functions but renewed powers ensuring the march towards the economic and monetary integration.
The revised Treaty established a Commission in place of the erstwhile Secretariat. The Commission is made up of a President, Vice President and Commissioners, one each from the Member States, appointed by the COHS. The basic criteria for appointment to the Commission are competence, objectivity and independence. The Commission’s functions are governed by the principle of collegiality and their decisions are taken by majority vote of its members. The President will cast a deciding vote in the event of a tie. The Commission , like the Commission of the European Union (EU), serves as the guardian of the CEMAC treaties and represents the Community in international negotiations on matters related to its objectives. Again, like the EU Commission, it has the right to initiate draft legislation and to apply and implement Community policies and programs.
In addition to the UEAC and the UMAC, the revised Treaty reestablished the Community Parliament and the Community’s Court of Justice as the Community Institutions. The enabling Convention through which the Parliament is to be fully established has not been adopted as yet. When operational, Parliament is expected to legislate through directives. Parliament shall provide democratic oversight of the institutions, organs, and specialized agencies involved in the decision-making process of CEMAC (Article 47 of the revised Treaty). The Court of Justice remains the judicial arm of CEMAC, charged with the responsibility of interpretation and implementation of the Treaty and its Conventions. The Court has jurisdiction over contentious disputes and may also provide advisory opinions. It includes a Judicial Chamber (Articles 11-25 of the Court of Justice Convention) and an Audit Chamber (Articles 26-29 of the Court of Justice Convention). The Community Court of Justice has given way to two separate entities, in compliance with the Post-2008 Guidelines: a CEMAC Court of Justice and a CEMAC Court of Audit (Article 10 of Revised Treaty of June 25, 2008).
The Revised Treaty re-established a community legal system along the lines of the European Union and ECOWAS. The COM and MC adopt regulations, framework regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions (Article 40 of the Revised treaty). A Regulation has general application and is binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States. Framework regulations are only binding in certain of their elements. A directive is binding, as to the result to be achieved, on each Member State, but not as to the form and methods. A Decision is binding in its entirety on those to whom it is addressed. Recommendations and Opinions have no binding force. The vision of the CEMAC is articulated today around the Regional Economic Program (PER) whose objective is to make the sub-regional institution, by 2025, "an integrated economic space, emerging where security reigns, solidarity and good governance at the service of human development." Adopted in 2010 by the member countries of the Community to meet the challenges of integration, the PER aims to develop the main resources of the sub-region and build a competitive, diversified and high value-added economy. It governs the development of the CEMAC zone as a whole and presents a 2010-2025 emergence agenda in three five-year phases:
- The 2010-2015 phase, which consists of building the institutional foundations of emergence;
- The 2016-2020 phase aims at anchoring the pillars of the Community's economic diversity;
- The aim of the 2021-2025 phase is to consolidate the previous phases.
The PER allows, on the one hand, to ensure a good articulation between the agenda of the CEMAC, its Member States and the private sector, and that of the development partners of the Community and, on the other hand, provides possibilities for complementarity between the interventions of the various donors at Community level. It’s divided into 5 axes, 12 strategic objectives, 29 programs and 86 projects.
Both ECOWAS and CEMAC have strikingly similar objectives : an ever closer union within each sub-region. Even though integration within ECOWAS is moving forward, that within CEMAC remains mixed because of the low rate of trade, protectionist leanings and leadership quarrels.
Ultimately, regional integration is the modality that Africa has to refine to meet the challenges of the inevitable onslaught of globalization. Hopefully, the many parallel and competing groupings will give way to one larger political and economic union as envisaged under the Africa Union and the Africa Economic Community Treaties.
4. Compilation of Treaties, Protocols and Conventions of ECOWAS
- A Compendium of Protocols, Conventions and Decisions Relating to the Free Movement of Persons and Goods. Lagos, ECOWAS, 1998.
- A Compendium of Protocols, Conventions and Decisions Relating to the Free Movement of Persons and Goods. Lagos, ECOWAS, 1992.
- An ECOWAS Compendium on Free Movement, Right of Residence and Establishment. Abuja: ECOWAS, 1999.
- International Legal Materials. Washington, DC, A.S.I.L., 1962_
- Official Journal of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Lagos, ECOWAS, 1979._
- Protocols Annexed to the Treaty of ECOWAS. Lagos, ECOWAS, 1989.
- Protocols, Decisions, Resolutions and Directives Relating to ECOWAS Transport Programme. Lagos, ECOWAS, 1992.
- Protocol A/P.1/7/93 Relating to the West African Monetary Agency (WAMA) Cotonou, ECOWAS, 1993
- Revised Treaty. Lome, Presses de l’Universite de Benin, 1995.
- Treaty and Communique. Lagos, ECOWAS, 1977.
- Treaty of the Economic community of West African States (ECOWAS). Lagos, ECOWAS, 1975.
- United Nations Treaty Series. New York, U.N., 1945
- ECOWAS Official Site
- Lexis’s International Legal Materials contains some of these treaties and protocols
- United Nations Treaty Series
- Westlaw’s International Legal Materials contains some of these treaties and protocols
5. Compilation of Treaties, Protocols, Conventions of CEMAC
- Bulletin Officiel de la CEMAC. Bangui, 1994–
- Journal Officiel de L’UDEAC, Douala, 1992 –
- Protocole de Cooperation Maritime en UDEAC/CEMAC. Bangui, 1994 –
- Textes organiques de la CEMAC, Bangui –
4. Compilations of ECOWAS Regulations, Decisions and Directives
- Boletin Oficial -Guinee-Bissau, Imprensa Nacional, 1974- (also appears in French as Bulletin Officiel/ Republique de Guinee-Bissau)
- Gambia Government Gazette. Banjul. Gov’t Printer, 1965-
- Ghana Gazette, Accra, Gov’t Printing Office, 1957-
- Journal Officiel de la Republique Populaire du Benin. Port Novo, 1975-
- Journal Officiel du Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, 1984-
- Journal Officiel de la Republique de Cote d’Ivoire. Abidjan, Service des Journaux Officiels, 1958-
- Journal Officiel de la Republique du Guinee. Conakry, Imp. Natinale “Patrice Lumumba”, 1984-
- Journal Officiel de la Republique du Niger. Niamey, Imp. Nationale du Niger, 1959-
- Journal Officiel de la Republique Togolaise. Lome, Cabinet du President, 1956-
- Journal Officiel de la Republique du Senegal, Dakar, Impr. Officielle, 1960-
- Official Gazette, Federal Republic of Nigeria. Lagos, 1963-
- Official Journal of the Economic Community of West African States. (ECOWAS). Lagos, ECOWAS, 1979-
- Sierra Leone Gazette. Freetown, Gov’t Printer, 1961-
6. Compilations of CEMAC Basic Acts, Regulations and Basic Regulations
- Bulletin Officiel de la CEMAC. Bangui, CEMAC, 1994 –
- Journal Officiel de la Republique Unies du Cameroun/Official bulletin of the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Yaounde, 1972 –
- Journal Officiel de la Republique Centrafricaine. Bangui, 1979 –
- Journal Officiel de la Republique du Tchad. N’Djamena, 1959 –
- Journal Officiel de la Republique Populaire du Congo. Brazzaville, 1958 –
- Journal Officiel de la Republique Gabonaise. Libreville, Service du Journal Officiel, 1959-
7. Significant Treaties and Organic Texts
- Constitutive Act of the African Union. Done at Lome, Togo on July 11, 2000. UNTS Registration Number 37733.
- Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community. Done at Abuja, Nigeria on June 3, 1991. 30 ILM 1241 (1991).
- Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States. Done at Lagos, Nigeria, on May 28, 1975. 14 ILM 1200 (1975); UNTS Registration Number 14843
- ECOWAS Revised Treaty . Done at Cotonou, Benin on July 24, 1993. 35 ILM 660 (1996)
- Supplementary Protocol A/SP.1/06/06 Amending the Revised Treaty of 1993.
- Treaty Establishing A Central African Economic and Customs Union/ Union Douaniere et Economique de l’Afrique Centrale ( UDEAC). Done at Brazzaville, Federal Republic of Congo on December 8, 1964. 4 ILM 699 ( 1965).
- Treaty Establishing the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States/ Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC) . Done at N’Djamena, Chad on March 16, 1994.
- Traite Revise/ Revised Treaty of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States/Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC) . Done at Yaoundé, Cameroon, on June 25, 2008.
8. Treatises, Books and Reports on African Regional Integration
- Adejumobi, Said & Adebayo O. Olukoshi. The African Union and New Strategies for Development in Africa. Amherst, N.Y.: Cambria Press, 2008
- Ajomo, M. Ayo & Omobolaji. Adewale. African Economic Community Treaty: Issues, Problems, and Prospects. Lagos: Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 1993
- Akinbobola, Ayo. Regional Integration in West Africa: Challenge for Emergent States. Lagos: Political and Administrative Resource Centre, 2007
- Akinrinade, Olusola & Kurt J. Barling. Economic Development in Africa International Efforts, Issues, and Prospects London: Pinter, 1987 Microform
- Akinyeye, O.A. Nation-States and the Challenges of Regional Integration in West Africa: the Case of Nigeria. Paris: Karthala, 2010
- Amuwo, Kunle. Civil Society, Governance and Regional Integration in Africa. Nairobi: Development Policy Management Forum, 2009
- Assessing Regional Integration in Africa IV: Enhancing Intra-African trade. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, 2010
- Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VI: Harmonizing Policies to Transform the Trading Environment: Overview. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, 2013
- Assessing Regional Integration in Africa: V: Towards an African Continental Free Trade Area. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, 2012
- Assessing Regional Integration in Africa 2008: Towards Monetary and Financial Integration in Africa. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, 2008
- Bakut tswah Bakut & Dutt, Sagarika. Africa at the Millennium: An Agenda for Mature Development Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave, 2000
- Brown, Myra Leann. Decision- Making in Developing Countries Regarding Participation in Regional Economic Organizations; Comparison of an Andean Pact, Ecowas and Asean case. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript: Microform Archival Material
- Bruntrup, Michael, Henning Melber & Ian Taylor. Africa, Regional Cooperation and the World Market: Socio-Economic Strategies in Times of Global Trade Regimes. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitut, 2006
- Gondwe, Carlton H. M.Dependency, Economic Integration and Development in Developing Areas: the Cases of EAC, ECOWAS and SADCC. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1988
- Gruhn, Isebill V. Regional Integration in Africa: Lessons of History. Santa Cruz, Calif.: Dept. of Politics, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1980
- Hudock, James A.Regional Cooperation among Less Industrialized Countries: a Political Economy Perspective of ASEAN, ECOWAS, and the CACMThesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material Archival Material, 1998.
- International and Regional Organizations Into the 21st century. Washington: Washington and Jefferson College, 1998
- Ikome, Francis Nguendi. From the Lagos Plan of Action to the New Partnership for Africa’s Development: the Political Economy of African Regional Initiatives. Midrand, South Africa: Institute for Global dialogue, 2007
- Keller, Edmond J. & Donald S. Rothschild. Africa in the New International Order: Rethinking State Sovereignty and Regional Security Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996
- Lebale, Norbert, J.D. Nkurunziza, Shigehisa Kasahara & Martin Halle. Economic Development in Africa Report 2009: Strengthening Regional Economic Integration for Africa’s Development. New York; Geneva: United Nations, 2009
- Liberalisation and Regional Integration in Africa: Proceedings of an International Conference in Arusha, Tanzania. May 25-28, 1992. Nairobi, Kenya: Friedrich Naumann-Stiftung, 1993.
- Makhan, Vijay S. Making Regional Integration Work in Africa: A Reflection on Strategies and Institutional Requirements. Harare: African Capacity Building Foundation, 2009
- Mazzeo, Domenico. African Regional Organizations Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984
- Metzer, Martina. Regional Cooperation and Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2008
- Ninson, Kwame Akon. Nation-States and the Challenges of Regional Integration in West Africa: The Case of Ghana. Paris: Karthala, 2009
- Oduro, A. D. Africa in the Multilateral Trading System: Opportunities and Challenges. Accra-North, Ghana: Centre for Policy Analysis, 2001
- Osanakpo, Theo Chike The EEC and ECOWAS: Some Comparative Legal Perspectives. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material 1984.
- An Overview of the Economy of the West African Economic Community, 1981
- Political Parties and Regional Integration in Africa. Nairobi: Centre for Governance and Development, 2008
- Proposals for the Rationalisation of West African Integration Efforts. Lagos: ECOWAS, 1987
- Renninger, John P. ECOWAS and Other West African Regional Organizations. Washington, D.C.: Dept. Of State, 1980.
- Review of the Economic Integration Experience of ALADI, ASEAN, CACM and ECOWAS: Report. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 1991
- Ross-Larson, Bruce Clifford. Assessing Regional integration in Africa II: Rationalizing Regional Economic Communities. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, 2006
- Tolentino, Corsino & Matthias Vogl. Sustainable Regional Integration in West Africa. Bonn: Zentrum fur Europaische Integrationsforschung, 2011
- Welz, Martin. Integrating Africa: Decolonization’s Legacies, Sovereignty and the African Union. New York: Routledge, 2013
9. Treatises, Books and Reports on ECOWAS
- Abimbola, S. O. ECOWAS: What? Why? How? Where? and When? Lagos: ECOWAS, 1989
- Adibe, Clement E. ECOWAS and the Democratic Imperative Kingston: Centre for International Relations, Queen's University, 1994
- Adibe, Clement Emenike Some Empirical Limitations to the Growth of Integration in West Africa a Case Study of the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS. Ottawa: National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque Nationale du Canada, 1991 Microform
- Adkisson, Stephen C. Integration in West Africa: an Empirical Examination of ECOWAS Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1984.
- Akinyemi, Nurudeen B., Political Obstacles to Regional Economic Integration in West Africa: a Case Study of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1986.
- Anadi, Sunday K.M. Regional Integration in Africa: The Case of ECOWAS. Zurich: University Dissertation, 2005
- Ankrah, Marvin Nii. Regionalism and Political Instability in West Africa: developments, Challenges and Prospects. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac, 2013
- Asante, S. K. B., The Political Economy of Regionalism in Africa: a Decade of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) New York: Praeger, 1986
- Baah-Dwomoh, Joseph. ECOWAS: Impetus, Potentialities and Impediments. 1977
- Bah, Alhaji Mohamed Sirjoh. Policy Issues and Regional Integration: A Case Study of Nigeria's Policy in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - - 1979-1997. South Africa: 1999.
- Bala, Maiyaki Theodore. A Handbook of the ECOWAS Treaty and Financial Institutions. Bloomington: Authorhouse, 2012
- Chambas, Mohammed Ibn. The ECOWAS Agenda: Promoting Good Governance, Peace, Stability, and Sustainable Development. Lagos: Nigeria Institute of International Affairs, 2005
- Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): an Overview of the Countries of the West African Economic Community. Lagos: ECOWAS, 1980-1989
- ECOWAS: Achievements, Challenges and Future Prospects. Lagos: ECOWAS Executive Secretariat, 1990
- ECOWAS: Milestones in Regional Integration. Lagos: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 2009
- ECOWAS: Papers Presented at the Conference on the Economic Community of West African States--ECOWAS. Washington, D.C., June 9-14, 1980.
- The ECOWAS Review: Economic Community of West African States. Lagos: ECOWAS Executive Secretariat, 1900-1997.
- Edi, Eric M. Globalization and Politics in the Economic Community of West African States. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2007
- Egbikuadje, John Nakpodia Igho. ECOWAS, a Regional Approach to Development and Self reliance. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material Archival, 1990.
- Ezenwe, Uka. ECOWAS and the Economic Integration of West Africa. New York, St Martin’s Press, 1983
- Gambari, Ibrahim A. Political and Comparative Dimensions of Regional Integration: the Case of ECOWAS Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press International, 1991
- Harrell-Bond, Barbara E., ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States Hanover: American Universities Field Staff, 1979
- International Conference on the Economic Community of West African States, Lagos, 1976. Lagos: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 1976
- Joof, Mam Biram. Intra-African Cooperation, the Case of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Berlin: Deutsche Stiftung für Internationale Entwicklung, 1981
- Kuffour, Kofi Oteng. The Institutional Transformation of the Economic Community of West African States. Ashgate: Surrey, 2006
- Kwarteng, Charles Owusu. Challenges of Regional Economic Cooperation Among the ECOWAS States of West Africa. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1989.
- Mac-Thompson, Donald Regional Functional Integration in West Africa: ECOWAS and Economic Development. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1988
- Markham, Theodore Kofi. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): A Theoretical Appraisal of Gains, Problems, and Prospects. 1976
- Mensah, Doté R. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Lomé, ECOWAS Fonds de Coopération, de Compensation et de Développement, 1984
- Munu, Alhaji M. The Future of ECOWAS Lagos: The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 1989
- Okafor, Chinyelugo Johnson. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Its Role in the Fostering of Economic Cooperation and Integration of the West African Sub-region. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1979.
- Okoh, Wilfred Ijeamaka Kelechukwu. Surge and Decline in Nigeria's Regional Economic Activities: Ecowas, 1979 Reconsidered 1975-1992. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material l, 1992.
- Oloruntimehin, B. Olatunji. Rebuilding ECOWAS on Democratic Principles Ibadan: Development Policy Centre, 2000
- Onwuka, Ralph I. Development and Integration in West Africa: the Case of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) .Ile-Ife: University of Ife Press, 1982
- An Overview of the Economy of the Countries of the West African Economic Community: Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS). Lagos: ECOWAS, 1990-1991.
- An Overview of the Economy of the Countries of the West African Economic Community: ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States). Dakar: Centre International du Commerce Exterieur du Senegal (CICES), 1988
- Papers Delivered During ECOWAS Week: Accra, Ghana, 21st-25th July, 1975. Accra: Public Relations Division, Ministry of Economic Planning, 1975.
- Papers on ECOWAS: Prepared Under the Auspices of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs. Lagos: The Institute, 1976-1979
- Progress Report on the Implementation of the ECOWAS Economic Recovery Programme. Lagos: ECOWAS Executive Secretariat, 1989
- Ranganathan, Rupa & Vivien Foster. ECOWAS’s Infrastructure: A regional Perspective. Washington, D.C. The World Bank, 2011
- Readings and Documents on ECOWAS: Selected Papers and Discussions From the 1976 Economic Community of West African States Conference. Lagos: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 1983.
- Renninger, John P. ECOWAS and Other West African Regional Organizations. Washington, D.C.: Dept. of State, 1980
- Senghor, Jeggan Colley. Ecowas: Perspectives on Treaty Revision and Reform. Dakar: United Nations, African Institute for Economic Development and Planning, 1993.
- Stacy, Marilyn and Karen McIlvaine, ECOWAS, Select Readings, 1975-1981. Washington: African Development Information Association U.S.A., 1982
- Ten Years of ECOWAS. Lagos: ECOWAS, 1985.
- Thomas, Robert A. The Origins, Evolution and Performance of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) : Since 1975. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1988.
- Ubogu, Roland E.& George M. Adamu. Development Planning Priorities and Strategies in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Ibadan : Heinemann Educational, 1983.
- Udom, Udoh Elijah. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): the Quest for Theory. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1980.
- Wayo, Ishobee. Regional Integration in West Africa: the Attitude of ECOWAS Leaders. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1982.
- West Africa Finds a New Future: Speeches by Heads of States During the ECOWAS Summit Meeting in Lagos, 27-28 May 1975. Lagos Economic Community of West African States,1975.
- Zormelo, Douglas Kudzo-Kota. Integration Theories and Economic Development: a Case Study of Political and Social Dynamics of ECOWAS. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material , 1994
- Zormelo, Justice & Jackson, Jeffrey. ECOWAS: Performance, Promise and Problems . Washington, D.C. : Africa Business and Economic Review, 1980
10. Treatises, Books and Reports on CEMAC
- Central African Monetary and Economic Community (CEMAC) Business Law Handbook. Washington, DC : International Business s, 2003
- Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC): Staff Report on Common Policies for Member Countries. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2013
- Darlan, Guy. Regional Integration: the African Solution to Development; a Case Study of the Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC). Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1973
- Ettangondop, Mbu. Regional Integration in Africa : a Case Study of the Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) / Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material , 1985
- Kitchen, Richard L. Problems of Regional Integration in Africa: The Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC) . Bradford : Development and Project Planning Centre, University of Bradford, 1990
- Zafar, Ali & Keiko Kubota, Regional Integration in Central Africa: Key Issues. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2003
- Achille SOMMO PENDE, "Sub-regional integration in CEMAC to the test of freedom of movement of goods and people", Catholic University of Central Africa - Master's degree in Governance and Public Policies 2010.
- "Trade and synchronization of cycles in the CEMAC countries" BEAC Working Paper, BWP N ° 05/2017.
- "State of Regional Integration in Africa V" Towards an African Continental Free Trade Area, publication of the Economic Commission for Africa, June 2012.
- "Grand Orientations of Economic Policies for 2018".
- Executive Secretariat CEMAC, Activity report of the first stage of the economic integration process of CEMAC (1999-2004), 2004.
- Progress Report on the Integration Process in Central Africa, INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS 2011 "Challenges and Opportunities of Industrial Policies in Central Africa", Yaoundé, 11 - 12 March 2011.
- Summary of the Implementation Report of the COMAI V Recommendations, Department of Economic Affairs of the AU September 2012.
- Désiré Avom, Amadou Bobbo, Dieudonné Mignamissi, Strengthening the effectiveness of macroeconomic convergence in CEMAC, 2015/4 Vol. 23.
- Désiré Avom, Regional integration in CEMAC: recurrent institutional problems, 2007/2 n° 222.
11. Sectoral Analysis of ECOWAS
- Abban, J.B. Industrialization in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies, 1983
- Akanji, O. O. Compilation of External Trade Statistics in the ECOWAS Region: Problems, Recent Developments and Prospects Abuja: Central Bank of Nigeria, 1998
- Akwule, Raymond. Telecommunications in West Africa: an Analysis of Selected Diplomatic Elite Perceptions of Regional Cooperation in the Field of Telecommunications Within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 1985, ©1986
- Campbell, Keith. Nigerian Foreign Policy and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): two essays. Braamfontein: South African Institute of International Affairs, 1978
- Co-operation and Trade in Livestock Products in the ECOWAS Sub-region. Addis Ababa: UN Economic Commission for Africa, Joint ECA/FAO, 1980
- Co-operation and Trade in Food Crop Products in the ECOWAS Sub-region. Addis Ababa: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Joint ECA/FAO, 1980
- Corlley, Chiavi. Relative Effects of Public and Private Investment on Growth in Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 1973-1990/ Thesis / dissertation / Manuscript Archival Material, 1995
- Diejomoah, Victor P. & M. A. Iyoha. Industrialization in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Ibadan: Heinemann Educational (Nig.), 1980
- ECOWAS Agricultural Programme; ECOWAS Industrial Programme ; ECOWAS Trade Liberalization Programme Lagos: ECOWAS, 1981
- ECOWAS Fund Accelerated Artisanal Fish. Abuja, Nigeria : Federal Dept. of Fisheries, Project Secretariat, 2000.
- Edeh, Herbert C, The Establishment of an ECOWAS Common Currency: Analysis of the Politics, Economics, and Prospects Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1996
- Energy Efficiency and Conservation in West Africa: Proceedings of a Seminar Held in Lome, Togo, March 30 - April 8, 1983 / Upton: Springfield: The Laboratory; 1984.
- Ewusi, Kodwo. The Prospects for Increasing Ghana's Manufactured Exports Under ECOWAS Legon: Institute of Statistical, Social, and Economic Research, University of Ghana, 1982.
- Export-Import Bank of India. ECOWAS, A Study of India’s Trade and Investment Potential. Mumbai: Quest Publications, 2008
- Fajana, F. O. The Potential Effects of the 1992 Single European Market on Members States of ECOWAS. Lagos: Economic Community of West African States, 1991
- Falusi, Abiodun O. Agricultural Production and Trade Problems Arising Out of the Drought Situation in West Africa. Has the ECOWAS Treaty an Answer?, 1976
- Fashoyin, Tayo Public Policy and Labour Markets in the ECOWAS: A Case Study of the Alien Expulsion Order by Nigeria, 1983 Lagos: Dept. of Industrial Relations and Personnel Management, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Lagos, 1985.
- Francis, David. The Politics of Economic Regionalism: Sierra Leone in ECOWAS. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2001.
- Francis, David John. Sierra Leone in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Political and Economic Implications. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1998.
- Fuseini-Bart, Theophilus. Free Movement of Goods Within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Comparisons With European Economic Community (EEC). Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1988.
- Gasiokwu, Martin U., ECOWAS: Problems of Citizenship and Free Movement / Jos: Mono Expressions, 1998
- Irons, Edward D. & Charlie E. Mahone. Trade and Investment Opportunities with ECOWAS . Atlanta, Ga.: Georgia World Congress Institute, 1982.
- Jebuni, Charles D. International Payments Systems Within ECOWAS Countries Accra-North: Centre for Policy Analysis, 1998.
- Jeter, Sinclair V. & Alexandre Mboukou. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): a Regional Approach to Business and Investment in West Africa. Washington, D.C.] Africa Business and Economic Review, 1981.
- Jones, Basil Morris. Growth, Convergence and Economic Integration in West Africa: the Case of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 2001.
- Jow, Kumba. The Socio-Economic Factors at the Root of the Low Implementation Record of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) /Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material , 1996
- Kalu, Kalu Ndukwe. Toward Regional Development: a Transactional Analysis of Regional Integration in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1994.
- Khan, Ahmed S. & Heimo. Mikkola. Sustainable Ocean Development: An Initiative for the Management and Protection of the Marine and Coastal Resources of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Sub-region. Banjul, The Gambia: UNIGAM, 2002.
- Kouame, Yao. & Cephas Pobi. ECOWAS Situation of Telecommunications in Member States: Report Lagos: Economic Community of West African States, 1980.
- Kpokou, Narcisse. Intra regional Trade Within Economic Community of West African States: ECOWAS. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1998.
- Lagbo, Francis Bliss. The Energy Crisis the Case of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), With Special Reference to Nigeria, Ghana and Burkina Faso. Ottawa: National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1993.
- Manboah-Rockson, Joseph K. Policy implications of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in regional development. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 2003.
- Masson, Paul R.& Pattillo, Catherine A. Monetary Union in West Africa (ECOWAS) Is It Desirable and How Could it be Achieved? Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2001 (Microform)
- Mattick, Robert E. Assessment of the Petroleum, Coal, and Geothermal Resources of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Region. [Reston, VA]: U.S. Geological Survey, 1982.
- Mazi-Iheme, Chinenye The Impact of International Cooperation in Education on ECOWAS Nations' Foreign Educational Policy. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1984.
- Mbi, E. E. Investor's forum, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): an Overview, 1980.
- Motor Vehicles (Third Party Insurance) (Ecowas Brown Card) Law. Accra: Ghana Pub. Corp., 1986.
- Ndoh, Sunday, The Impact of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on African Trade. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1985.
- Nwachukwu, Ike. Nigeria and the ECOWAS Since 1985: Towards a Dynamic Regional Integration .Enugu: Fourth Dimension Pub. Co., 1991.
- Nyong, Francis Etim Nigeria and ECOWAS: the Prospects for Nigeria's Role in ECOWAS: Objectives, Opportunities, Problems, Leadership and Policies. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1983
- Ogunkola, E. Olawale. An Evaluation of the Viability of a Single Monetary Zone in ECOWAS. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium, 2005
- Ojo, Oladeji O.; Janet.Farooq; & Akin. Ogunpola. Nigeria and ECOWAS: A Study in the Economics of Integration. [Ile-Ife]: Obafemi Awolowo University, 1980
- Okokon, Africanus Bassey Akaninyene.External Borrowing, Export Promotion and Import Substitution in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 1967-1977. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1981.
- Okrakene, Joseph Tobore. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): its Political and Economic Dimensions: a Thesis /Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1992.
- Olagbegi, Oladapo John Case Study of Nigeria and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material 1990.
- Orimalade, Adeyinka & Roland E.Ubogu, Trade & Development in Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) New Delhi: Vikas, 1984
- Owoeye, Jide, Nigeria in International Institutions. Ibadan, Oyo State: College Press, 1993
- Owosekun, Akinola Adeniyi, ed. Towards an African Economic Community :
- (Lessons of Experience From ECOWAS): Proceedings of an International Conference Ibadan: Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1986
- Proceedings, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Energy Symposium: Energy For Survival: Freetown, Sierra Leone, November 2-6, 1981 Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1982
- Progress Report on the Implementation of the ECOWAS Economic Recovery Programme. Lagos ECOWAS Executive Secretariat, 1989
- Sarr, Momodou Lamin. Law of the Sea Implications For an ECOWAS Common Fisheries Policy Seattle, Wash. : Institute for Marine Studies, University of Washington, 1979
- Shaw, Timothy M. & Julius Emeka. Okolo. The Political Economy of Foreign Policy in ECOWAS New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994
- Study on the Co-ordination of Transport and Communications. Lagos: Economic Community of West African States, 1980
- Study on the Harmonization and Co-ordination of Schedules of West African Airlines. Addis Ababa Economic Community of West African States : United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa, Transport, Communications, and Tourism Division : United Nations Development Programme, 1992
- Technical Papers: a Symposium on Incentives to Agricultural Production in West Africa. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Agency for International Development, 1985.
- The Trade Liberalisation Scheme (TLS) of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Papers Presented at the 2nd National Seminar on TLS Kaduna Kaduna Chamber of Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture, 1992.
- Trade Tariffs: Incorporating Political and Economic Information. Abuja : Nigerian Export Promotion Council, 1991-
- Tremolieres, Marie. Regional Challenges of West African Migration: African and European Perspectives. Paris: OECD, 2009
- Uche, Chibuike U.: The Politics of Monetary Sector Cooperation Among the Economic Community of West African States Members. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Institute, Robert S. McNamara Fellowships Program, 2001
- Udogwu, Prosper The Impact of Resource Power and Societal Factors on Nigerian foreign Policy Between 1973 and 1985: the Case of ECOWAS. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 2002
- Umar, Goni Monetary Integration in ECOWAS and Loss of Independent Monetary Policy: a Case Study of Nigeria. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1992.
12. Sectoral Analysis of CEMAC
- Central African Economic and Monetary Community. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2012
- Central African Monetary and Economic Community (CEMAC) Investment and Business Guide. Washington, D.C.: International Business Publications, 2006
- Central African Economic and Monetary Community: Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2006
- Commerce Inter-Etats UDEAC, 1975-1981. Bangui : UDEAC, 1980
- Drummond, Paolo Flavio Nacif. Implications of Oil Inflows for Savings and Reserve Management in the CEMAC. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2007
- Étude des Problèmes Regionaux de Transport en Afrique Centrale : UDEAC. , 1990
- Fongod, Edwin Nuvaga. CEMAC Customs Guide / Limbe, Cameroon : Design House, 2002
- Guide, Anne-Marie. Central African Economic and monetary Community (CEMAC): Selected Issues. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2005
- Iossifov, Plamen. Improving Surveillance Across the CEMAC Region. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2009
- Iossifov, Plamen, Dimitre Milkov, Rafael Portillo & John Wakeman-Linn. The International Financial crisis and Global recession: Impact on the CEMAC Region and Policy Considerations. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary fund, 2009
- Khan, Sunday A. Volatility of Resource Inflows and Economic Growth in CEMAC Countries. Ottawa: North-South Institute, 2008
- Kitchen, Richard L. & David Sarley. Industrial Efficiency and Policy Reform: The Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC). Bradford : Development and Project Planning Centre, University of Bradford, 1991
- La Charte des Investissements de la CEMAC/ Communauté économique et monétaire de l'Afrique centrale..Yaoundé : Editions SAAGRAPH, 2000
- Mpatswe, Gaston K., Sampawende J.-A. Tapsoba & Robert C. York. The Cyclicality of Fiscal Policies in the CEMAC Region. Washigton, D.C.: UInternational Monetary Fund, 2011
- Oliva, Maria-Angels. Trade Restrictiveness in the CEMAC Region: The Case of Congo. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2008
- Poplawski-Ribeiro, Marcos, Darlena Tartari & Carlos Caceres. Inflation Dynamics in the CEMAC Region. Washigton, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2011
- Recensement des Entreprises Tous Secteurs :Industrie, Commerce, Banques, Assurances, Autres Services. Brazzaville: Union Douanière et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale., Département des Statistiques., 1967
- Tembunde, P.N. A Brief Study of the UDEAC : Customs Law and Procedure Yaounde, Cameroon Dept. of Customs, 1975-
- Trade Policy Review: report by the Secretariat, Countries of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). Geneva: World Trade Organization, 2013
- Trevino, Juan P. Oil-Price Boom and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation: Is there Dutch Disease in the CEMAC. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary fund, 2011
- Tsangarides, Charalambos G. & Jan Kees Matrijn. Trade Reform in the CEMAC. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2007
- Vacher, Jerome. Banking Sector Integration and Competition in CEMAC. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2007
- Wiegand, Johannes. Fiscal Surveillance in a Petro Zone : the case of the CEMAC / Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund, Policy Development and Review Dept., 2004
- WTO Trade Policy Review: CEMAC (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo and Gabon). Geneva: World Trade Organization, 2014
13. Conflict Prevention, Peace and Security Issues
- Adibe, Clement. Hegemony, Security, and West African Integration: Nigeria, Ghana, and the Transformation of ECOWAS. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1994.
- Anigekwu, Wilfred L. The Hegemonic Role of Nigeria in ECOWAS: a Comparative Analysis. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 2002.
- Aning, Emmanuel Kwesi. Security in the West African Subregion: an Analysis of ECOWAS' Policies in Liberia. Copenhagen: Institute of Political Science, University of Copenhagen, 1999.
- Aning, Emmanuel Kwesi. Managing Regional Security in West Africa: Ecowas, Ecomog, and Liberia / Copenhagen, Denmark: Centre for Development Research, 1994.
- Bekoe, Dorina Akosua Oduraa & Aida. Mengistu Operationalizing the ECOWAS Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping, and Security. New York: Abuja: International Peace Academy; ECOWAS, 2002.
- Damrosch, Lori F. Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1993.
- Deme, Mourtada. Law, Morality and International Armed Intervention. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis, 2013
- Diouf, Babacar. The Future of Conflict Resolution in Africa and the Role of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School, 1998.
- Ero, Comfort. & Waheguru Pal Singh Sidhu. Toward a Pax West Africana: building peace in a troubled sub-region .New York: International Peace Academy, 2001.
- Fall, Alassane. Shaping Future African Peacekeeping Forces: Organization Design and Civil-Military Relations Lessons Learned from the West African Peace Force in Liberia. Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School, 1998.
- Florquin, Nicolas & Eric G. Berman. Armed and Aimless: Armed Groups, Guns and Human Security in the ECOWAS Region. Geneva: Small Arms Survey, 2005
- Francis, David J. Dangers of Co-deployment: UN Co-operative Peacekeeping in Africa. Burlington: Ashgate Pub., 2004.
- Gandois, Helene. From Ploughshare to Sword: Regionalism in Africa: The Emergence of Regional Security Organizations in Africa: A Comparative Study of ECOWAS and SADC. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Pub, 2009
- Gebe, Boniface Yao. International Regulation of the Liberian Civil Conflict: the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and Regional Security. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1995.
- Jaye Thomas. ECOWAS and the Dynamics of Conflict and Peace Buiding. Dakar: Codesria, 2011
- Jaye, Thomas Issues of Sovereignty, Strategy, and Security in the Economic Community of West Lewiston, N.Y: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003.
- Maximenko, Andrei Regional Security and International Integration in West Africa: the Case of Organizational Learning in ECOWAS Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1996.
- Mgbeoji, Ikechi Collective Security and the Legality of the ECOWAS Intervention in the Liberian Civil War Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 2001.
- Nsia-Pepra, Kofi Legal Analysis of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) Operations in Liberia and Sierra Leone - Effects and Future. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 2001.
- Okoosi, A. T. Global Versus Regional Peace-keeping: a Survey of Nigeria's Involvement in the ECOWAS ECOMOG Operation in Liberia. Ibadan: Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), 1997.
- Sirleaf, Amos Mohammed. The Role of the Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) in the Liberian Civil Conflict 1980-1997: a Case Study of Conflict Management. Washington, DC: A.M. Sirleaf, 2000.
- Vib-Sanziri, Francis. Processes and Approaches that Africa Should Adopt for a More Responsive and Effective Management and Resolution of Conflicts on the Continent. Fort Leavenworth: Army Command and General Staff Coll , 1998.
- Weiss, Thomas George. Beyond UN Subcontracting: Task-Sharing With Regional Security Arrangements and Service-Providing NGOs. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.
14. Bibliographic Works, Indices, Charts and Other Reference Aids
- Akisanya, Jayeola. List of Articles and Papers Presented on ECOWAS. Ibadan: Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Ibadan, 1978.
- La Charte des Investissements de la CEMAC. Yaounde: CEMAC, 2000.
- Common ECOWAS Statistical Standards and Definitions. Lagos: Economic Community of West African States, 1982.
- ECOWAS Social and Economic Indicators. Abuja, ECOWAS, 2000.
- Igue, Ogunsola John, ECOWAS: Selected Bibliography .Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Center for Afroamerican and African Studies, 1984.
- Irele, Modupeola. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): a Bibliography and Source. Lagos, Nigeria: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 1990.
- National Accounts of ECOWAS. Abuja: ECOWAS, 2000.
- Statistical Bulletin. Abuja: ECOWAS, 2001.
- Statistics on Production of Major Crops in ECOWAS Member States, 1980-1986 Lagos Economic Community of West African States, 1987.
- Tableau des Professionnels Liberaux de la Comptabilite Agrees par L’UDEAC/ CEMAC. Bangui, CEMAC.
- Tariff des Douanes; Tableau des Droits et Taxes a l’Importation/Customs Tariff;Table of Import Duties and Taxes. Union Douaniere et Economique de l’Afrique Centrale. Choisy-le-Roi impimerie de France, 1969.
- Trade Tariffs in ECOWAS Countries. Lagos: The Council, 1991-.
 African Regional Organizations. Domenico Mazzeo, ed., 1984 at p1 et. seq.
 Bourenane, Naceur. “ Regional Integration in Africa: Situation and Prospects” in Regional Integration in Africa . OECD/ADB Seminar. (2002) at 17 et seq.
 Riley, Stephen “West African Sub-regionalism: the Case of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Glenn Hook and Ian Kearns, eds. Sub-Regionalism and World Order. (1999) at p. 68.
 Bourenane, Naceur, op.cit. at p. 27.
 The Treaty Establishing the Economic Community of West African States. Done at Lagos, Nigeria on May 28, 1975. 14 ILM 1200. Hereinafter, “1975 ECOWAS Treaty”).
 Ibid Article 62(1).
 Ibid Article 2(1).
 Ibid Article 2(1).
 Ibid Article 5.
 Ibid. Article 6.
 Ibid Article 8.
 Ibid Article 9.
 Ibid Article 9(3).
 Ibid. Article 10.
 Ibid. Article 11.
 Ibid Article 56.
 Knowles, Oliver S. “ECOWAS: Problems and Potential “ in J.E Okolo and Stephen Klright, eds. West African Regional Cooperation and Development, (1990) 147 at p.148.
 Riley, Stephen, op.cit at p. 69.
 1975 ECOWAS Treaty, Article 12.
 Riley, Stephen, op.cit. at p.71.
 Ibid. at p.70.
 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Revised Treaty. Done at Cotonou, Benin on July 24, 1993. Article 3(2)(c). (Hereinafter “ECOWAS Revised Treaty”).
 Ibid. Article 2 (1).
 Ibid Article 4.
 Ibid. Article 13.
 Ibid. Article 14.
 Ibid. Article 16.
 Ibid. Article 15.
 Ibid. Article 9(4).
 Ibid Article 12(3).
 Ibid Articles 9(2) and 12(2).
 Ibid Articles 9(5) and 12(4).
 Ibid. Article 9(6) and 12(4).
 Ibid Articles 9(7) and 12(4).
 Ibid Articles 10(a), 10(c), 10(d) and 10(h).
 Ibid. Articles 9(4) and 12(3).
 Ibid. Article 84.
 Bourenane, Naceur, op.cit. At p. 24.
 Annual Report of the Executive Secretary of ECOWAS, 2002. (ECW/CM/XLIX/2).Abuja, ECOWAS Secretariat, 2002. at p. 45 et. seq.(Hereinafter, “2002 ECOWAS Report”).
 Ibid at p. 41.
 Ibid.cf. On July 6, 2006, Ghana’s Foreign Minister announced in the Ghana Parliament that the country will introduce the ECOWAS passport to be used concurrently with the existing national passports. Ghana News Agency. July 6, 2006.
 Bourenane, Naceur at p.24.
 2002 ECOWAS Report at p. 45.
 Ibid at p.46.
 Ibid at p. 53 et. seq.
 Ibid at p. 54.
 “Regional Leaders Finalize Transformation of ECOWAS Secretariat into Commission” Press Release, ECOWAS Secretariat, Abuja, Nigeria, June 14, 2006.
 Riley, Stephen , op. cit. at p. 81.
 Ibid. at p.82.
 Zafar, Ali and Keiko Kubota. Regional Integration in Central Africa: Key Issues. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2003 at p.1.
 Mytelka, Lynn Krieger, “Competition, Conflict and Decline in Union Douaniere et Economique de l’Afrique Centrale (UDEAC) in African Regional Organizations. Domenico Mazzeo, ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984, at p.132.
 Treaty Establishing A Central African Economic and Customs Union/ Union Douaniere et Economique de l’Afrique Centrale (UDEAC). Done at Brazzaville, Congo on December 8, 1964.
4 ILM 699 (1965). (Hereinafter, “1964 UDEAC Treaty”).
 “Equatorial Guinea” in Europa World Yearbook. 46th ed.. London and New York, Routledge, 2005 at p.1602.
 Mytella, Lynn Krieger, op. cit. at 136.
 Ibid. at p.138.
 The Treaty Establishing the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States/Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC). Done at N’Djamena, Chad on March 16, 1994. (Hereinafter, “1994 CEMAC Treaty”).
 Ibid Article 1.
 The Convention Governing the Economic Union of Central African States/Union Economique de l’Afrique Centrale (UEAC). Done at Libreville, Gabon on July 5, 1996. Article 4 and the Convention Governing the Monetary Union of Central African States/ Union Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale (UMAC). Done at Libreville, Gabon on July 5, 1996. Article 4.
 1994 CEMAC Treaty Article 2.
 Additional Procol to the Treaty of CEMAC Relative to the Institutional and Juridical System of the Community. Done at Libreville, Gabon on July 5, 1996. Article 3.
 Ibid. Articles 8 and 9.
 Ibid. Article 10.
 Ibid Articles 12 and 13.
 Ibid Article 13.
 Ibid. Article 12.
 Ibid. Article 16.
 Ibid. Article 16.
 Ibid. Article 20.
 Ibid. Article 21.
 Ibid Article 20.
 Ibid. Article 21.
 Ibid. Article 22.
 Ibid. Article 23.
 UDEAC decision No. 6/98-UDEAC-CE-33 of February 5, 1998.
 Central Africa: Riches Side by Side With Poverty. African News Bulletin- Bulletin d’Information Africaine (ANB-BIA) Supplement Issue/Edition No. 468 of December 15, 2003.
 Constitutive Act of the African Union. Done at Lome, Togo on July 11, 2000. UNTS Registration Number 37733.
 O.A.U. Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community. Done at Abuja, Nigeria on June 3, 1991. 30 ILM 1241 (1991).